64 research outputs found

    Exploration of advanced CMOS technologies for new pixel detector concepts in High Energy Physics

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    This thesis presents the author’s original concepts for the development of radiation hard monolithic pixel sensors that can replace hybrid pixel sensors in high energy physics experiments. It presents one of the first practical implementations of monolithic pixel sensors that potentially offer performance figures similar to those of the hybrid pixel technology with fewer material and for a fraction of the cost. Various pixel sensor prototypes in different technologies have been designed and manufactured for the first time. Prototypes allowed the characterization of the basic components of active pixel sensors and the evaluation of device parameters. Presented devices show strong indications that monolithic sensors can achieve very high radiation tolerance with parameters similar to the existing hybrid technology. Other application areas like X-ray imaging may also benefit from this development

    A method for precise charge reconstruction with pixel detectors using binary hit information

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    A method is presented to precisely reconstruct charge spectra with pixel detectors using binary hit information of individual pixels. The method is independent of the charge information provided by the readout circuitry and has a resolution mainly limited by the electronic noise. It relies on the ability to change the detection threshold in small steps while counting hits from a particle source. The errors are addressed and the performance of the method is shown based on measurements with the ATLAS pixel chip FE-I4 bump bonded to a 230 {\mu}m 3D-silicon sensor. Charge spectra from radioactive sources and from electron beams are presented serving as examples. It is demonstrated that a charge resolution ({\sigma}<200 e) close to the electronic noise of the ATLAS FE-I4 pixel chip can be achieved

    Characterization and Verification Environment for the RD53A Pixel Readout Chip in 65 nm CMOS

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    The RD53 collaboration is currently designing a large scale prototype pixel readout chip in 65 nm CMOS technology for the phase 2 upgrades at the HL-LHC. The RD53A chip will be available by the end of the year 2017 and will be extensively tested to confirm if the circuit and the architecture make a solid foundation for the final pixel readout chips for the experiments at the HL-LHC. A test and data acquisition system for the RD53A chip is currently under development to perform single-chip and multi-chip module measurements. In addition, the verification of the RD53A design is performed in a dedicated simulation environment. The concept and the implementation of the test and data acquisition system and the simulation environment, which are based on a modular data acquisition and system testing framework, are presented in this work

    Breakdown Performance of Guard Ring Designs for Pixel Detectors in 150 nm150~\mathrm{nm} CMOS Technology

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    Silicon pixel sensors manufactured using commercial CMOS processes are promising instruments for high-energy particle physics experiments due to their high yield and proven radiation hardness. As one of the essential factors for the operation of detectors, the breakdown performance of pixel sensors constitutes the upper limit of the operating voltage. Six types of passive CMOS test structures were fabricated on high-resistivity wafers. Each of them features a combination of different inter-pixel designs and sets of floating guard rings, which differ from each other in the geometrical layout, implantation type, and overhang structure. A comparative study based on leakage current measurements in the sensor substrate of unirradiated samples was carried out to identify correlations between guard ring designs and breakdown voltages. TCAD simulations using the design parameters of the test structures were performed to discuss the observations and, together with the measurements, ultimately provide design features targeting higher breakdown voltages

    Prototype Active Silicon Sensor in 150 nm HR-CMOS Technology for ATLAS Inner Detector Upgrade

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    The LHC Phase-II upgrade will lead to a significant increase in luminosity, which in turn will bring new challenges for the operation of inner tracking detectors. A possible solution is to use active silicon sensors, taking advantage of commercial CMOS technologies. Currently ATLAS R&D programme is qualifying a few commercial technologies in terms of suitability for this task. In this paper a prototype designed in one of them (LFoundry 150 nm process) will be discussed. The chip architecture will be described, including different pixel types incorporated into the design, followed by simulation and measurement results.Comment: 9 pages, 9 figures, TWEPP 2015 Conference, submitted to JINS

    Neutron irradiation test of depleted CMOS pixel detector prototypes

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    Charge collection properties of depleted CMOS pixel detector prototypes produced on p-type substrate of 2 kΩ\Omegacm initial resistivity (by LFoundry 150 nm process) were studied using Edge-TCT method before and after neutron irradiation. The test structures were produced for investigation of CMOS technology in tracking detectors for experiments at HL-LHC upgrade. Measurements were made with passive detector structures in which current pulses induced on charge collecting electrodes could be directly observed. Thickness of depleted layer was estimated and studied as function of neutron irradiation fluence. An increase of depletion thickness was observed after first two irradiation steps to 1⋅\cdot1013^{13} n/cm2^{2} and 5⋅\cdot1013^{13} n/cm2^{2} and attributed to initial acceptor removal. At higher fluences the depletion thickness at given voltage decreases with increasing fluence because of radiation induced defects contributing to the effective space charge concentration. The behaviour is consistent with that of high resistivity silicon used for standard particle detectors. The measured thickness of the depleted layer after irradiation with 1⋅\cdot1015^{15} n/cm2^{2} is more than 50 ÎŒ\mum at 100 V bias. This is sufficient to guarantee satisfactory signal/noise performance on outer layers of pixel trackers in HL-LHC experiments

    BDAQ53, a versatile pixel detector readout and test system for the ATLAS and CMS HL-LHC upgrades

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    BDAQ53 is a readout system and verification framework for hybrid pixel detector readout chips of the RD53 family. These chips are designed for the upgrade of the inner tracking detectors of the ATLAS and CMS experiments. BDAQ53 is used in applications where versatility and rapid customization are required, such as in laboratory testing environments, test beam campaigns, and permanent setups for quality control measurements. It consists of custom and commercial hardware, a Python-based software framework, and FPGA firmware. BDAQ53 is developed as open source software with both software and firmware being hosted in a public repository.Comment: 6 pages, 6 figure

    Charge collection and efficiency measurements of the TJ-Monopix2 DMAPS in 180 \,nm CMOS technology

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    Monolithic CMOS pixel detectors have emerged as competitive contenders in the field of high-energy particle physics detectors. By utilizing commercial processes they offer high-volume production of such detectors. A series of prototypes has been designed in a 180 \,nm Tower process with depletion of the sensor material and a column-drain readout architecture. The latest iteration, TJ-Monopix2, features a large 2 \,cm x 2 \,cm matrix consisting of 512 x 512 pixels with 33.04 \,um pitch. A small collection electrode design aims at low power consumption and low noise while the radiation tolerance for high-energy particle detector applications needs extra attention. With a goal to reach radiation tolerance to levels of 1015 1 10^{15}\,1\,MeV neq _\text{eq}\,cm−2^{-2} of NIEL damage a modification of the standard process has been implemented by adding a low-dosed n-type silicon implant across the pixel in order to allow for homogeneous depletion of the sensor volume. Recent lab measurements and beam tests were conducted for unirradiated modules to study electrical characteristics and hit detection efficiency.Comment: Conference proceedings for PIXEL2022 conference, submitted to Po