49 research outputs found

    Extrapolation to nonequilibrium from coarse grained response theory

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    Nonlinear response theory, in contrast to linear cases, involves (dynamical) details, and this makes application to many body systems challenging. From the microscopic starting point we obtain an exact response theory for a small number of coarse grained degrees of freedom. With it, an extrapolation scheme uses near-equilibrium measurements to predict far from equilibrium properties (here, second order responses). Because it does not involve system details, this approach can be applied to many body systems. It is illustrated in a four state model and in the near critical Ising model.Comment: Accepted for publication in Phys. Rev. Let

    Direct measurement of thermophoretic forces

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    We study the thermophoretic motion of a micron sized single colloidal particle in front of a flat wall by evanescent light scattering. To quantify thermophoretic effects we analyse the nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) of the particle in a constant temperature gradient perpendicular to the confining walls. We propose to determine thermophoretic forces from a 'generalized potential' associated with the probability distribution of the particle position in the NESS. Experimentally we demonstrate, how this spatial probability distribution is measured and how thermophoretic forces can be extracted with 10 fN resolution. By varying temperature gradient and ambient temperature, the temperature dependence of Soret coefficient ST(T)S_T(T) is determined for r=2.5ÎĽmr = 2.5 \mu m polystyrene and r=1.35ÎĽmr = 1.35 \mu m melamine particles. The functional form of ST(T)S_T(T) is in good agreement with findings for smaller colloids. In addition, we measure and discuss hydrodynamic effects in the confined geometry. The theoretical and experimental technique proposed here extends thermophoresis measurements to so far inaccessible particle sizes and particle solvent combinations

    Measurement of second-order response without perturbation

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    We study the second order response functions of a colloidal particle being subjected to an anharmonic potential. Contrary to typical response measurements which require an external perturbation, here we experimentally confirm a recently developed approach where the system's susceptibilities up to second order are obtained from the particle's equilibrium trajectory [PCCP 17\mathrm{{\bf 17}}, 6653 (2015)]. The measured susceptibilities are in quantitative agreement with those obtained from the response to an external perturbation.Comment: 4 figure

    Force measurement in the presence of Brownian noise: Equilibrium distribution method vs. Drift method

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    The study of microsystems and the development of nanotechnologies require new techniques to measure piconewton and femtonewton forces at microscopic and nanoscopic scales. Amongst the challenges, there is the need to deal with the ineluctable thermal noise, which, in the typical experimental situation of a spatial diffusion gradient, causes a spurious drift. This leads to a correction term when forces are estimated from drift measurements [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 170602 (2010)]. Here, we provide a systematic study of such effect comparing the forces acting on various Brownian particles derived from equilibrium distribution and drift measurements. We discuss the physical origin of the correction term, its dependence on wall distance, particle radius, and its relation to the convention used to solve the respective stochastic integrals. Such correction term becomes more significant for smaller particles and is predicted to be in the order of several piconewtons for particles the size of a biomolecule.Comment: 10 pages, 13 figure

    Critical Casimir forces in colloidal suspensions on chemically patterned surfaces

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    We investigate the behavior of colloidal particles immersed in a binary liquid mixture of water and 2,6-lutidine in the presence of a chemically patterned substrate. Close to the critical point of the mixture, the particles are subjected to critical Casimir interactions with force components normal and parallel to the surface. Because the strength and sign of these interactions can be tuned by variations in the surface properties and the mixtures temperature, critical Casimir forces allow the formation of highly ordered monolayers but also extend the use of colloids as model systems.Comment: 4 papges, 4 figures, accepted at Phys. Rev. Let

    Influence of Noise on Force Measurements

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    We demonstrate how the ineluctable presence of thermal noise alters the measurement of forces acting on microscopic and nanoscopic objects. We quantify this effect exemplarily for a Brownian particle near a wall subjected to gravitational and electrostatic forces. Our results demonstrate that the force measurement process is prone to artifacts if the noise is not correctly taken into account.Comment: 4 Pages, 4 Figures, Accepte

    Novel perspectives for the application of total internal reflection microscopy

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    Total Internal Reflection Microscopy (TIRM) is a sensitive non-invasive technique to measure the interaction potentials between a colloidal particle and a wall with femtonewton resolution. The equilibrium distribution of the particle-wall separation distance z is sampled monitoring the intensity I scattered by the Brownian particle under evanescent illumination. Central to the data analysis is the knowledge of the relation between I and the corresponding z, which typically must be known a priori. This poses considerable constraints to the experimental conditions where TIRM can be applied (short penetration depth of the evanescent wave, transparent surfaces). Here, we introduce a method to experimentally determine I(z) by relying only on the distance-dependent particle-wall hydrodynamic interactions. We demonstrate that this method largely extends the range of conditions accessible with TIRM, and even allows measurements on highly reflecting gold surfaces where multiple reflections lead to a complex I(z).Comment: 11 pages, 7 figure

    Salt-induced changes of colloidal interactions in critical mixtures

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    We report on salt-dependent interaction potentials of a single charged particle suspended in a binary liquid mixture above a charged wall. For symmetric boundary conditions (BC) we observe attractive particle-wall interaction forces which are similar to critical Casimir forces previously observed in salt-free mixtures. However, in case of antisymmetric BC we find a temperature-dependent crossover from attractive to repulsive forces which is in strong contrast to salt-free conditions. Additionally performed small-angle x-ray scattering experiments demonstrate that the bulk critical fluctuations are not affected by the addition of salt. This suggests that the observed crossover can not be attributed alone to critical Casimir forces. Instead our experiments point towards a possible coupling between the ionic distributions and the concentration profiles in the binary mixture which then affects the interaction potentials in such systems.Comment: 5 pages, 4 Figure

    Terminal NK cell maturation is controlled by concerted actions of T-bet and Zeb2 and is essential for melanoma rejection

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    Natural killer (NK) cell maturation is a tightly controlled process that endows NK cells with functional competence and the capacity to recognize target cells. Here, we found that the transcription factor (TF) Zeb2 was the most highly induced TF during NK cell maturation. Zeb2 is known to control epithelial to mesenchymal transition, but its role in immune cells is mostly undefined. Targeted deletion of Zeb2 resulted in impaired NK cell maturation, survival, and exit from the bone marrow. NK cell function was preserved, but mice lacking Zeb2 in NK cells were more susceptible to B16 melanoma lung metastases. Reciprocally, ectopic expression of Zeb2 resulted in a higher frequency of mature NK cells in all organs. Moreover, the immature phenotype of Zeb2(-/-) NK cells closely resembled that of Tbx21(-/-) NK cells. This was caused by both a dependence of Zeb2 expression on T-bet and a probable cooperation of these factors in gene regulation. Transgenic expression of Zeb2 in Tbx21(-/-) NK cells partially restored a normal maturation, establishing that timely induction of Zeb2 by T-bet is an essential event during NK cell differentiation. Finally, this novel transcriptional cascade could also operate in human as T-bet and Zeb2 are similarly regulated in mouse and human NK cells