2,427 research outputs found

### Two-dimensional anyons and the temperature dependence of commutator anomalies

The temperature dependence of commutator anomalies is discussed on the
explicit example of particular (anyonic) field operators in two dimensions. The
correlation functions obtained show that effects of the non-zero temperature
might manifest themselves not only globally but also locally.Comment: 11 pages, LaTe

### Entanglement condition via su(2) and su(1,1) algebra using Schr{\"o}dinger-Robertson uncertainty relation

The Schr{\"o}dinger-Robertson inequality generally provides a stronger bound
on the product of uncertainties for two noncommuting observables than the
Heisenberg uncertainty relation, and as such, it can yield a stricter
separability condition in conjunction with partial transposition. In this
paper, using the Schr{\"o}dinger-Robertson uncertainty relation, the
separability condition previously derived from the su(2) and the su(1,1)
algebra is made stricter and refined to a form invariant with respect to local
phase shifts. Furthermore, a linear optical scheme is proposed to test this
invariant separability condition.Comment: published version, 3.5 pages, 1 figur

### Dynamical $F(R)$ gravities

It is offered that $F(R)-$modified gravities can be considered as
nonperturbative quantum effects arising from Einstein gravity. It is assumed
that nonperturbative quantum effects gives rise to the fact that the connection
becomes incompatible with the metric, the metric factors and the square of the
connection in Einstein - Hilbert Lagrangian have nonperturbative additions. In
the simplest approximation both additions can be considered as functions of one
scalar field. The scalar field can be excluded from the Lagrangian obtaining
$F(R)-$gravity. The essence of quantum correction to the affine connection as a
torsion is discussed.Comment: discussion on quantum corrections is adde

### Spherically Symmetric Solution for Torsion and the Dirac equation in 5D spacetime

Torsion in a 5D spacetime is considered. In this case gravitation is defined
by the 5D metric and the torsion. It is conjectured that torsion is connected
with a spinor field. In this case Dirac's equation becomes the nonlinear
Heisenberg equation. It is shown that this equation has a discrete spectrum of
solutions with each solution being regular on the whole space and having finite
energy. Every solution is concentrated on the Planck region and hence we can
say that torsion should play an important role in quantum gravity in the
formation of bubbles of spacetime foam. On the basis of the algebraic relation
between torsion and the classical spinor field in Einstein-Cartan gravity the
geometrical interpretation of the spinor field is considered as ``the square
root'' of torsion.Comment: 7 pages, REVTEX, essential changing of tex

### On the statistical theory of turbulence

A study is made of the spectrum of isotropic turbulence with the aid of the customary method of Fourier analysis. The spectrum of the turbulent motion is derived to the smallest wave lengths, that is, into the laminar region, and correlation functions and pressure fluctuations are calculated. A comparison with experimental results is included. Finally, an attempt is made to derive the numerical value of a constant characteristic of the energy dissipation in isotropic turbulence

### Unitary equivalence between ordinary intelligent states and generalized intelligent states

Ordinary intelligent states (OIS) hold equality in the Heisenberg uncertainty
relation involving two noncommuting observables {A, B}, whereas generalized
intelligent states (GIS) do so in the more generalized uncertainty relation,
the Schrodinger-Robertson inequality. In general, OISs form a subset of GISs.
However, if there exists a unitary evolution U that transforms the operators
{A, B} to a new pair of operators in a rotation form, it is shown that an
arbitrary GIS can be generated by applying the rotation operator U to a certain
OIS. In this sense, the set of OISs is unitarily equivalent to the set of GISs.
It is the case, for example, with the su(2) and the su(1,1) algebra that have
been extensively studied particularly in quantum optics. When these algebras
are represented by two bosonic operators (nondegenerate case), or by a single
bosonic operator (degenerate case), the rotation, or pseudo-rotation, operator
U corresponds to phase shift, beam splitting, or parametric amplification,
depending on two observables {A, B}.Comment: published version, 4 page

### Measuring measurement--disturbance relationships with weak values

Using formal definitions for measurement precision {\epsilon} and disturbance
(measurement backaction) {\eta}, Ozawa [Phys. Rev. A 67, 042105 (2003)] has
shown that Heisenberg's claimed relation between these quantities is false in
general. Here we show that the quantities introduced by Ozawa can be determined
experimentally, using no prior knowledge of the measurement under investigation
--- both quantities correspond to the root-mean-squared difference given by a
weak-valued probability distribution. We propose a simple three-qubit
experiment which would illustrate the failure of Heisenberg's
measurement--disturbance relation, and the validity of an alternative relation
proposed by Ozawa

### Kinetic energy driven superconductivity, the origin of the Meissner effect, and the reductionist frontier

Is superconductivity associated with a lowering or an increase of the kinetic
energy of the charge carriers? Conventional BCS theory predicts that the
kinetic energy of carriers increases in the transition from the normal to the
superconducting state. However, substantial experimental evidence obtained in
recent years indicates that in at least some superconductors the opposite
occurs. Motivated in part by these experiments many novel mechanisms of
superconductivity have recently been proposed where the transition to
superconductivity is associated with a lowering of the kinetic energy of the
carriers. However none of these proposed unconventional mechanisms explores the
fundamental reason for kinetic energy lowering nor its wider implications. Here
I propose that kinetic energy lowering is at the root of the Meissner effect,
the most fundamental property of superconductors. The physics can be understood
at the level of a single electron atom: kinetic energy lowering and enhanced
diamagnetic susceptibility are intimately connected. According to the theory of
hole superconductivity, superconductors expel negative charge from their
interior driven by kinetic energy lowering and in the process expel any
magnetic field lines present in their interior. Associated with this we predict
the existence of a macroscopic electric field in the interior of
superconductors and the existence of macroscopic quantum zero-point motion in
the form of a spin current in the ground state of superconductors (spin
Meissner effect). In turn, the understanding of the role of kinetic energy
lowering in superconductivity suggests a new way to understand the fundamental
origin of kinetic energy lowering in quantum mechanics quite generally

### Unitary equivalence between ordinary intelligent states and generalized intelligent states

Ordinary intelligent states (OIS) hold equality in the Heisenberg uncertainty
relation involving two noncommuting observables {A, B}, whereas generalized
intelligent states (GIS) do so in the more generalized uncertainty relation,
the Schrodinger-Robertson inequality. In general, OISs form a subset of GISs.
However, if there exists a unitary evolution U that transforms the operators
{A, B} to a new pair of operators in a rotation form, it is shown that an
arbitrary GIS can be generated by applying the rotation operator U to a certain
OIS. In this sense, the set of OISs is unitarily equivalent to the set of GISs.
It is the case, for example, with the su(2) and the su(1,1) algebra that have
been extensively studied particularly in quantum optics. When these algebras
are represented by two bosonic operators (nondegenerate case), or by a single
bosonic operator (degenerate case), the rotation, or pseudo-rotation, operator
U corresponds to phase shift, beam splitting, or parametric amplification,
depending on two observables {A, B}.Comment: published version, 4 page

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