10 research outputs found

    Temporal Analysis of Language through Neural Language Models

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    We provide a method for automatically detecting change in language across time through a chronologically trained neural language model. We train the model on the Google Books Ngram corpus to obtain word vector representations specific to each year, and identify words that have changed significantly from 1900 to 2009. The model identifies words such as "cell" and "gay" as having changed during that time period. The model simultaneously identifies the specific years during which such words underwent change

    Comparison of Healthy and Dandruff Scalp Microbiome Reveals the Role of Commensals in Scalp Health

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    Several scalp microbiome studies from different populations have revealed the association of dandruff with bacterial and fungal dysbiosis. However, the functional role of scalp microbiota in scalp disorders and health remains scarcely explored. Here, we examined the bacterial and fungal diversity of the scalp microbiome and their potential functional role in the healthy and dandruff scalp of 140 Indian women. Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis emerged as the core bacterial species, where the former was associated with a healthy scalp and the latter with dandruff scalp. Along with the commonly occurring Malassezia species (M. restricta and M. globosa) on the scalp, a strikingly high association of dandruff with yet uncharacterized Malassezia species was observed in the core mycobiome. Functional analysis showed that the fungal microbiome was enriched in pathways majorly implicated in cell-host adhesion in the dandruff scalp, while the bacterial microbiome showed a conspicuous enrichment of pathways related to the synthesis and metabolism of amino acids, biotin, and other B-vitamins, which are reported as essential nutrients for hair growth. A systematic measurement of scalp clinical and physiological parameters was also carried out, which showed significant correlations with the microbiome and their associated functional pathways. The results point toward a new potential role of bacterial commensals in maintaining the scalp nutrient homoeostasis and highlights an important and yet unknown role of the scalp microbiome, similar to the gut microbiome. This study, therefore, provides new perspectives on the better understanding of the pathophysiology of dandruff

    Safety and efficacy of abatacept among patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis: Experience from a North Indian Tertiary Care Hospital

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    Background: T-cells are pathogenic in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and have an important role in persistent synovitis, even in established disease. Modulation of T-cell activity by blocking of costimulatory signals has been known to suppress inflammation and improves prognosis in RA. This study aims to assess the effect of costimulation blockade with Abatacept in patients with RA who were refractory to conventional synthetic/biological disease modifying anti-rheumatoid drugs (csDMARDs, bDMARDs). Methods: In this prospective study, 63 patients with active disease, measured by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) disease activity score (DAS28-erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR]) ≥3.2, who had failed conventional therapy with at least 2 csDMARDs and/or antitumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) agents (Infliximab/Etanercept) either standalone, or in combination, were initiated on Abatacept in fixed doses, which was given on days 1,15, and 29 and repeated every 28 days for 11 months, after taking informed consent. Biomarkers comprising ESR and DAS28-ESR score were measured at baseline and repeated at the end of 3, 6, and 12 months. The primary end-point was the achievement of remission as defined by DAS28-ESR score ≤ 2.6. Results: Sixty-three patients completed 6 monthly follow-up whereas 57 patients completed 12 months follow-up (90% follow-up rate). DAS28-ESR declined significantly at 3 months (P = 0) and improvements were sustained at 6th and 12th month. Treatment was discontinued in three patients due to inadequate response, and three patients were lost to follow-up. Nearly 52.6% patients achieved primary end-point. Most common adverse effects reported during the study period were headache (14.2%) and upper respiratory tract infection (9.5%). Conclusions: Abatacept is an effective and well-tolerated treatment option for Indian RA patients with an inadequate response to csDMARDs and TNF antagonists

    The COVID-19 pandemic and mental health outcomes – A cross-sectional study among health care workers in Coastal South India [version 4; peer review: 2 approved]

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    Background: Frontline health care workers (HCWs) are at increased risk of developing unfavourable mental health outcomes and burnout, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Recognizing the early warning signs of mental distress is very important to ensure the provision of quality patient care. Methods: In this facility-based cross-sectional study, HCWs of the teaching hospitals affiliated to Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore were assessed regarding their mental health status using a semi-structured questionnaire. All doctors and nurses who were willing to participate from these teaching hospitals were included in the study. Data was collected over a period of four months (1st March -30th June 2021) till the required sample size was reached and analysed using IBM SPSS and expressed using mean (standard deviation), median (interquartile range), and proportions. Univariate analysis was done to identify the factors associated with mental health outcomes among the HCWs and the corresponding unadjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were reported. Results: A total of 245 HCWs [52.2% (n=128) doctors and 47.8% (n=117) nurses] were included in our study. The proportion of participants with depressive symptoms, anxiety, and insomnia assessed using PHQ-9, GAD-7, and ISI-7 scales were 49% (n=119), 38% (n=93), and 42% (n=102) respectively. Depression, anxiety, and insomnia were more likely to be experienced by HCWs aged > 27 years, females, and involved in COVID-19 patient care. (p>0.05) Conclusions:  Our findings that 38% of the examined HCWs had clinically relevant anxiety symptoms and 49% had clinically relevant depression symptoms draws attention to the importance of systematically tracking the mental health of HCWs during this ongoing pandemic. HCWs should monitor their stress reactions and seek appropriate help both on a personal and professional level. Appropriate workplace interventions including psychological support should be provided to HCWs, to ensure provision of uncompromised quality patient care

    In vitro biological activities of new heterocyclic chalconederivatives

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    This work reports the synthesis and character-ization of new heterocyclic chalcone derivatives 3(a–j) andin vitro biological evaluation for antiproliferative, antiox-idant, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties. The antiproliferative efficacy and LC50 of the compoundsagainst HepG2 cell lines were determined. The LC50 for 3dwas found to be 8 lg/mL. All the compounds exhibitedmoderate DPPH scavenging activity and moderate to goodantimicrobial activity against tested bacterial and fungalstrains. Further, the compounds at their respective maxi-mum non-toxic concentrations did not inhibit DNA viruseslike buffalopox, camelpox, and goatpox

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy and its determinants among patients attending a tertiary health care centre in Mangalore, India

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    Background. The burden of diabetes mellitus (DM) is on the rise especially in developing countries like India. Due to its chronic nature DM tends to cause many debilitating complications and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of them. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of DPN among patients attending a tertiary care hospital and to identify the determinants associated with it. Design and methods. A cross sectional study was conducted in Government Wenlock Hospital, Mangalore (India), during January-February 2014. A total of 208 patients with &gt;5 year duration of DM were asked to respond to the patient history version of Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI) and examinations were conducted after obtaining consent from them. The statistical analysis was done in terms of descriptive statistics and association between variables was tested using logistic regression test.Results. The prevalence of DPN using the MNSI history version and MNSI examination were found to be 18.3% and 32.2% respectively. The major determinants associated with DPN were found to be male gender (OR: 2.7, CI: 1.4-5.1, P=0.001), smoking (OR: 5.8, CI: 1.9-17.3, P=0.001) and age &gt;40 years (OR: 2.7, CI: 1.2-5.8, P=0.011). Conclusions. The burden of undetected DPN was found to be higher among diabetics, with an especially higher prevalence among males, smokers and those with long standing diabetes mellitus. Interventions in the form of early detection through routine screening, smoking cessation and regular follow up examinations would go a long way in reducing the burden of disability among diabetics and improve their quality of life significantly.</p