2,636 research outputs found

    Participatory plant breeding: a way to arrive at better-adapted onion varieties

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    The search for varieties that are better adapted to organic farming is a current topic in the organic sector. Breeding programmes specific for organic agriculture should solve this problem. Collaborating with organic farmers in such programmes, particularly in the selection process, can potentially result in varieties better adapted to their needs. Here, we assume that organic farmers' perceptive of plant health is broader than that of conventional breeders. Two organic onion farmers and one conventional onion breeder were monitored in their selection activities in 2004 and 2005 in order to verify whether and in which way this broader view on plant health contributes to improvement of organic varieties. They made selections by positive mass selection in three segregating populations under organic conditions. The monitoring showed that the organic farmers selected in the field for earliness and downy mildew and after storage for bulb characteristics. The conventional breeder selected only after storage. Farmers and breeder applied identical selection directions for bulb traits as a round shape, better hardness and skin firmness. This resulted in smaller bulbs in the breeders’ populations, while the bulbs in the farmer populations were bigger than in the original population. In 2006 and 2007 the new onion populations will be compared with each other and the original populations to determine the selection response

    Highly-ordered graphene for two dimensional electronics

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    With expanding interest in graphene-based electronics, it is crucial that high quality graphene films be grown. Sublimation of Si from the 4H-SiC(0001) Si-terminated) surface in ultrahigh vacuum is a demonstrated method to produce epitaxial graphene sheets on a semiconductor. In this paper we show that graphene grown from the SiC(0001ˉ)(000\bar{1}) (C-terminated) surface are of higher quality than those previously grown on SiC(0001). Graphene grown on the C-face can have structural domain sizes more than three times larger than those grown on the Si-face while at the same time reducing SiC substrate disorder from sublimation by an order of magnitude.Comment: Submitted to Appl. Phys. Let

    Electronic Cooling via Interlayer Coulomb Coupling in Multilayer Epitaxial Graphene

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    In van der Waals bonded or rotationally disordered multilayer stacks of two-dimensional (2D) materials, the electronic states remain tightly confined within individual 2D layers. As a result, electron-phonon interactions occur primarily within layers and interlayer electrical conductivities are low. In addition, strong covalent in-plane intralayer bonding combined with weak van der Waals interlayer bonding results in weak phonon-mediated thermal coupling between the layers. We demonstrate here, however, that Coulomb interactions between electrons in different layers of multilayer epitaxial graphene provide an important mechanism for interlayer thermal transport even though all electronic states are strongly confined within individual 2D layers. This effect is manifested in the relaxation dynamics of hot carriers in ultrafast time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. We develop a theory of interlayer Coulomb coupling containing no free parameters that accounts for the experimentally observed trends in hot-carrier dynamics as temperature and the number of layers is varied.Comment: 54 pages, 15 figures, uses documentclass{achemso}, M.T.M. and J.R.T. contributed equally to this wor

    Magnetoplasmons in quasi-neutral epitaxial graphene nanoribbons

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    We present infrared transmission spectroscopy study of the inter-Landau-level excitations in quasi-neutral epitaxial graphene nanoribbon arrays. We observed a substantial deviation in energy of the L0(−1)L_{0(-1)}→\toL1(0)L_{1(0)} transition from the characteristic square root magnetic-field dependence of two-dimensional graphene. This deviation arises from the formation of upper-hybrid mode between the Landau level transition and the plasmon resonance. In the quantum regime the hybrid mode exhibits a distinct dispersion relation, markedly different from that expected for conventional two-dimensional systems and highly doped graphene

    SAVAH: Source address validation with Host Identity Protocol

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    Abstract. Explosive growth of the Internet and lack of mechanisms that validate the authenticity of a packet source produced serious security and accounting issues. In this paper, we propose validating source addresses in LAN using Host Identity Protocol (HIP) deployed in a first-hop router. Compared to alternative solutions such as CGA, our approach is suitable both for IPv4 and IPv6. We have implemented SAVAH in Wi-Fi access points and evaluated its overhead for clients and the first-hop router

    How harmonic is dipole resonance of metal clusters?

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    We discuss the degree of anharmonicity of dipole plasmon resonances in metal clusters. We employ the time-dependent variational principle and show that the relative shift of the second phonon scales as N−4/3N^{-4/3} in energy, NN being the number of particles. This scaling property coincides with that for nuclear giant resonances. Contrary to the previous study based on the boson-expansion method, the deviation from the harmonic limit is found to be almost negligible for Na clusters, the result being consistent with the recent experimental observation.Comment: RevTex, 8 page

    Raman Topography and Strain Uniformity of Large-Area Epitaxial Graphene

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    We report results from two-dimensional Raman spectroscopy studies of large-area epitaxial graphene grown on SiC. Our work reveals unexpectedly large variation in Raman peak position across the sample resulting from inhomogeneity in the strain of the graphene film, which we show to be correlated with physical topography by coupling Raman spectroscopy with atomic force microscopy. We report that essentially strain free graphene is possible even for epitaxial graphene.Comment: 10 pages, 3 figure

    Evidence for Adiabatic Magnetization of cold Dy_N Clusters

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    Magnetic properties of Dy_N clusters in a molecular beam generated with a liquid helium cooled nozzle are investigated by Stern-Gerlach experiments. The cluster magnetizations \mu_z are measured as a function of magnetic field (B = 0 - 1.6T) and cluster size (16 < N < 56). The most important observation is the saturation of the magnetization \mu_z(B) at large field strengths. The magnetization approaches saturation following the power law |\mu_z-\mu_0| proportional to 1/\sqrt{B}, where \mu_0 denotes the magnetic moment. This gives evidence for adiabatic magnetization.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figure
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