56 research outputs found

    Spatially resolved spectroscopic differentiation of hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains on individual insulin amyloid fibrils

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    The formation of insoluble ő≤-sheet-rich protein structures known as amyloid fibrils is associated with numerous neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer‚Äôs and Parkinson‚Äôs disease. A detailed understanding of the molecular structure of the fibril surface is of interest as the first contact with the physiological environment in vivo and plays a decisive role in biological activity and associated toxicity. Recent studies reveal that the inherent sensitivity and specificity of tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) renders this technique a compelling method for fibril surface analysis at the single-particle level. Here, the reproducibility of TERS is demonstrated, indicating its relevance for detecting molecular variations. Consequently, individual fibrils are systematically investigated at nanometer spatial resolution. Spectral parameters were obtained by band-fitting, particularly focusing on the identification of the secondary structure via the amide III band and the differentiation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains on the surface. In addition multivariate data analysis, specifically the N-FINDR procedure, was employed to generate structure-specific maps. The ability of TERS to localize specific structural domains on fibril surfaces shows promise to the development of new fibril dissection strategies and can be generally applied to any (bio)chemical surface when structural variations at the nanometer level are of interest

    National, clinical cohort study of late effects among survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia:The ALL-STAR study protocol

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    Introduction More than 90% of patients diagnosed with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) today will survive. However, half of the survivors are expected to experience therapy-related chronic or late occurring adverse effects, reducing quality of life. Insight into underlying risk trajectories is warranted. The aim of this study is to establish a Nordic, national childhood ALL survivor cohort, to be investigated for the total somatic and psychosocial treatment-related burden as well as associated risk factors, allowing subsequent linkage to nation-wide public health registers.Methods and analysis This population-based observational cohort study includes clinical follow-up of a retrospective childhood ALL survivor cohort (n=475), treated according to a common Nordic ALL protocol during 2008‚Äď2018 in Denmark. The study includes matched controls. Primary endpoints are the cumulative incidence and cumulative burden of 197 health conditions, assessed through self-report and proxy-report questionnaires, medical chart validation, and clinical examinations. Secondary endpoints include organ-specific outcome, including cardiovascular and pulmonary function, physical performance, neuropathy, metabolic disturbances, hepatic and pancreatic function, bone health, oral and dental health, kidney function, puberty and fertility, fatigue, and psychosocial outcome. Therapy exposure, acute toxicities, and host genome variants are explored as risk factors.Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the Regional Ethics Committee for the Capital Region in Denmark (H-18035090/H-20006359) and by the Danish Data Protection Agency (VD-2018‚Äď519). Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and are expected to guide interventions that will ameliorate the burden of therapy without compromising the chance of cure

    Pregnant women become insensitive to cold stress

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    BACKGROUND: The function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is known to be altered during pregnancy, but it has not been tested with a natural stressor. METHODS: A group of pregnant women (n = 10) were tested towards the end of pregnancy (mean 36.8 ¬Ī 2.5 weeks gestation) and about 8 weeks postpartum (mean 7.8 ¬Ī 1.5 weeks), together with a matched control group, with a one minute cold hand stressor test. Saliva samples were collected before and 10 and 20 minutes after the test, and stored for later radioimmunoassay of cortisol. RESULTS: The control group showed a highly significant response to the test. The pregnant group showed no response, and the postpartum group a variable but non significant one CONCLUSIONS: This shows that the HPA axis becomes hypofunctional to a natural stressor at the end of pregnancy. It is suggested that one possible evolutionary function for this is to protect the fetus from the stress responses of the mother

    Effects of Anacetrapib in Patients with Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease

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    BACKGROUND: Patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease remain at high risk for cardiovascular events despite effective statin-based treatment of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. The inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) by anacetrapib reduces LDL cholesterol levels and increases high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. However, trials of other CETP inhibitors have shown neutral or adverse effects on cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 30,449 adults with atherosclerotic vascular disease who were receiving intensive atorvastatin therapy and who had a mean LDL cholesterol level of 61 mg per deciliter (1.58 mmol per liter), a mean non-HDL cholesterol level of 92 mg per deciliter (2.38 mmol per liter), and a mean HDL cholesterol level of 40 mg per deciliter (1.03 mmol per liter). The patients were assigned to receive either 100 mg of anacetrapib once daily (15,225 patients) or matching placebo (15,224 patients). The primary outcome was the first major coronary event, a composite of coronary death, myocardial infarction, or coronary revascularization. RESULTS: During the median follow-up period of 4.1 years, the primary outcome occurred in significantly fewer patients in the anacetrapib group than in the placebo group (1640 of 15,225 patients [10.8%] vs. 1803 of 15,224 patients [11.8%]; rate ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.85 to 0.97; P=0.004). The relative difference in risk was similar across multiple prespecified subgroups. At the trial midpoint, the mean level of HDL cholesterol was higher by 43 mg per deciliter (1.12 mmol per liter) in the anacetrapib group than in the placebo group (a relative difference of 104%), and the mean level of non-HDL cholesterol was lower by 17 mg per deciliter (0.44 mmol per liter), a relative difference of -18%. There were no significant between-group differences in the risk of death, cancer, or other serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease who were receiving intensive statin therapy, the use of anacetrapib resulted in a lower incidence of major coronary events than the use of placebo. (Funded by Merck and others; Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN48678192 ; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01252953 ; and EudraCT number, 2010-023467-18 .)

    Effect of remote ischaemic conditioning on clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (CONDI-2/ERIC-PPCI): a single-blind randomised controlled trial.

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    BACKGROUND: Remote ischaemic conditioning with transient ischaemia and reperfusion applied to the arm has been shown to reduce myocardial infarct size in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). We investigated whether remote ischaemic conditioning could reduce the incidence of cardiac death and hospitalisation for heart failure at 12 months. METHODS: We did an international investigator-initiated, prospective, single-blind, randomised controlled trial (CONDI-2/ERIC-PPCI) at 33 centres across the UK, Denmark, Spain, and Serbia. Patients (age >18 years) with suspected STEMI and who were eligible for PPCI were randomly allocated (1:1, stratified by centre with a permuted block method) to receive standard treatment (including a sham simulated remote ischaemic conditioning intervention at UK sites only) or remote ischaemic conditioning treatment (intermittent ischaemia and reperfusion applied to the arm through four cycles of 5-min inflation and 5-min deflation of an automated cuff device) before PPCI. Investigators responsible for data collection and outcome assessment were masked to treatment allocation. The primary combined endpoint was cardiac death or hospitalisation for heart failure at 12 months in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02342522) and is completed. FINDINGS: Between Nov 6, 2013, and March 31, 2018, 5401 patients were randomly allocated to either the control group (n=2701) or the remote ischaemic conditioning group (n=2700). After exclusion of patients upon hospital arrival or loss to follow-up, 2569 patients in the control group and 2546 in the intervention group were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. At 12 months post-PPCI, the Kaplan-Meier-estimated frequencies of cardiac death or hospitalisation for heart failure (the primary endpoint) were 220 (8·6%) patients in the control group and 239 (9·4%) in the remote ischaemic conditioning group (hazard ratio 1·10 [95% CI 0·91-1·32], p=0·32 for intervention versus control). No important unexpected adverse events or side effects of remote ischaemic conditioning were observed. INTERPRETATION: Remote ischaemic conditioning does not improve clinical outcomes (cardiac death or hospitalisation for heart failure) at 12 months in patients with STEMI undergoing PPCI. FUNDING: British Heart Foundation, University College London Hospitals/University College London Biomedical Research Centre, Danish Innovation Foundation, Novo Nordisk Foundation, TrygFonden
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