15,643 research outputs found

    Recent advances in satellite observations of solar variability and global atmospheric ozone

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    The launch of Nimbus 4 in April 1974 has made possible simultaneous measurements of the ultraviolet solar irradiance and the global distribution of atmospheric ozone by the monitor of ultraviolet solar energy (MUSE) and backscatter ultraviolet (BUV) experiments respectively. Two long lived ultraviolet active solar regions which are about 180 deg apart in solar longitude were observed to be associated with central meridian passages of solar magnetic sector boundaries. The boundaries may be significant in the evaluation of correlations between solar magnetic sector structure and atmospheric circulation

    Asymmetries in ozone depressions between the polar stratospheres following a solar proton event

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    Ozone depletions in the polar stratosphere during the energetic solar proton event on 4 August 1972 were observed by the backscattered ultraviolet (BUV) experiments on the Nimbus 4 satellite. The observed ozone contents, the ozone depressions and their temporal variations above the 4 mb level exhibited distinct asymmetries between the northern and southern hemispheres. Since the ozone destroying solar particles precipitate rather symmetrically into the two polar atmospheres, due to the geomagnetic dipole field, it is suggested that these asymmetries may be explained in terms of the differences in dynamics between the summer and the winter polar atmospheres. In the summer (northern) hemisphere, the stratospheric and mesospheric ozone depletion and recovery are smooth functions of time due to the preponderance of undistributed orderly flow in this region. On the other hand, the temporal variation of the upper stratospheric ozone in the winter polar atmosphere (southern hemisphere) exhibits large amplitude irregularities. These characteristic differences between the two polar atmospheres are also evident in the vertical distributions of temperatures and winds observed by balloons and rocket soundings

    Measures of the solar spectral irradiance between 1200 and 3000 A

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    Tabulated data on solar flux measurements are presented. The measurements, taken from balloons, rockets and satellites, are not new data, but have been critically re-evaluated. The eleven year sunspot cycle is discussed. Also discussed is the brightness temperature. The effect of solar radiation at various wavelengths, on the photochemistry of stratospheric ozone is briefly discussed

    A possible correlation between maxima of the far ultraviolet solar irradiance and central meridian passages of solar magnetic sector boundaries

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    Satellite observations of the sun over almost 5 yrs show that principally two UV active longitudes have persisted over a significant portion of this observational period. A comparison between the position of solar magnetic sector boundaries and UV enhancements of the sun seems to show, at least during the year 1969, that the UV maxima tend to occur near the times when a solar sector boundary is near central meridian. An estimate of the magnitude of the variable UV solar energy input into the atmosphere resulting from the rotation of active solar longitudes is that for wavelengths less than 175 nm and down to H Lyman-alpha it exceeds the annual variation, whereas at longer wavelengths it is less

    NIMBUS-7 SBUV (Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet) observations of solar UV spectral irradiance variations caused by solar rotation and active-region evolution for the period November 7, 1978 - November 1, 1980

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    Observations of temporal variations of the solar UV spectral irradiance over several days to a few weeks in the 160-400 nm wavelength range are presented. Larger 28-day variations and a second episode of 13-day variations occurred during the second year of measurements. The thirteen day periodicity is not a harmonic of the 28-day periodicity. The 13-day periodicity dominates certain episodes of solar activity while others are dominated by 28-day periods accompanied by a week 14-day harmonic. Techniques for removing noise and long-term trends are described. Time series analysis results are presented for the Si II lines near 182 nm, the Al I continuum in the 190 nm to 205 nm range, the Mg I continuum in the 210 nm to 250 nm range, the MgII H & K lines at 280 nm, the Mg I line at 285 nm, and the Ca II K & H lines at 393 and 397 nm

    Seasonal and interannual variations in total ozone revealed by the Nimbus-4 backscattered ultraviolet experiment

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    The first two years of Backscattered Ultraviolet (BUV) ozone data from the Nimbus-4 spacecraft were reprocessed. The seasonal variations of total ozone for the period April 1970 to April 1972 are described using daily zonal means to 10 deg latitude zones and a time-latitude cross section. In addition, the BUV data are compared with analyzed Dobson data and with IRIS data also obtained from the Nimbus-4 spacecraft. A harmonic analysis was performed on the daily zonal means. Amplitudes, days of peaks, and percentage of variance were computed for annual and semi-annual waves and for higher harmonics of an annual period for the two years. Asymmetries are found in the annual waves in the two hemispheres, with a subtle interannual difference which may be due to changes in the general circulation. A significant semi-annual component is detected in the tropics for the first year, which appears to result from influences of the annual waves in the two hemispheres

    Influence of a solar proton event on stratospheric ozone

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    Ozone depletion in the stratosphere associated with the solar proton event of August 4, 1972, was observed with the backscattered ultraviolet experiment on the Nimbus 4 satellite. An abrupt ozone decrease in the 75-80 deg N zone of about 0.002 atm-cm above 4 mb was observed to persist throughout the month of August. A decrease was noted in the 55-65 deg N zone on days 219 and 220, but recovery occurred on day 221. Thereafter, a more gradual decrease was observed. The equatorial zone also showed gradual decrease after day 218, but these were not uniquely distinguished from seasonal variations. The observed change in total ozone following the event was -0.003 atm-cm for the 75-80 deg N zone, corresponding to a 1.3 percent reduction in the 0.305 atm-cm zonal average, but within the 0.019 atm-cm standard deviation. Above the 10 mb surface in the 75-80 deg N zone however, a decrease of 0.004 atm-cm may be compared with a standard deviation of 0.001 atm-cm

    Variations in the stratospheric ozone field inferred from Nimbus satellite observations

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    The ultraviolet earth radiance data from the Backscatter Ultraviolet Experiment on Nimbus 4 have been inverted to infer ozone profiles using a single Rayleigh scattering model. Two methods of solution give essentially the same results. Comparisons of these profiles with simultaneous rocket sounding data shows satisfactory agreement at low and middle latitudes. Vertical cross sections of ozone mixing ratio along the orbital tracks indicate that while the gross characteristics of the ozone field above 10 mb are under photochemical control, the influence of atmospheric motions can be found up to the 4 mb level

    Ten Years of Solar Change as Monitored by SBUV and SBUV/2

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    Observations of the Sun by the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) instrument aboard Nimbus 7 and the SBUV/2 instrument aboard NOAA-9 reveal variations in the solar irradiance from 1978, to 1988. The maximum to minimum solar change estimated from the Heath and Schlesinger Mg index and wavelength scaling factors is about 4 percent from 210 to 260 nm and 8 percent for 180 to 210 nm; direct measurements of the solar change give values of 1 to 3 percent and 5 to 7 percent, respectively, for the same wavelength range. Solar irradiances were high from the start of observations, late in 1978, until 1983, declined until early 1985, remained approximately constant until mid-1987, and then began to rise. Peak-to-peak 27-day rotational modulation amplitudes were as large as 6 percent at solar maximum and 1 to 2 percent at solar minimum. During occasional intervals of the 1979 to 1983 maximum and again during 1988, the dominant rotational modulation period was 13.5 days. Measurements near 200 to 205 nm show the same rotational modulation behavior but cannot be used to track long-term changes in the Sun because of uncertainties in the characterization of long-term instrument sensitivity changes
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