32 research outputs found

    Design issues in cross-coupled inverter sense amplifier

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    This paper presents an analytical approach to the design of CMOS cross-coupled inverter sense amplifiers. The effects of the equilibrating transistors and the tail current source on the speed of the sense amplifier are analyzed. An analysis of the offset due to mismatch in various parameters is performed, showing that a complete offset analysis has to account for the cell and bitline structure. A new figure of merit for the offset in the sense amplifier and several new design insights are introduced

    Status loss due to COVID-19, traditional masculinity, and their association with recent suicide attempts and suicidal ideation

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    The COVID-19 pandemic is causing extensive job loss leading to a loss of social status in many men. Endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology may render some men particularly sensitive to status loss and thereby to an increased risk for suicidality. In this anonymous online survey conducted in German-speaking European countries, 490 men completed questionnaires regarding loss of social status due to the COVID-19 pandemic, past-month and lifetime suicide attempt and suicidal ideation. Furthermore, endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology and prototypical and male-typical externalizing depression symptoms were measured. Out of a total of 490 men, 14.7% of men reported experiencing status loss due to the pandemic. These men were more than four times as likely to have attempted suicide in the past month (OR = 4.48, 95% CI [1.72, 11.67]) and more than twice as likely to report suicidal ideation during the past 2 weeks (OR = 2.47, 95% CI [1.42, 4.28]), than men not reporting status loss. Status loss, but not endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology, was associated with suicide outcomes. However, when male-typical externalizing depression symptoms and prototypical depression symptoms were included in the models, they exhibited the only direct associations with suicide outcomes (e.g., for past-month suicide attempt: male-typical externalizing depression symptoms OR = 2.18, 95% CI [1.31, 3.62], prototypical depression symptoms OR = 2.41, 95% CI [1.13, 5.12]). A significant interaction between status loss and endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology further suggests an enhancing moderating effect of traditional masculinity on the relationship between status loss and past-month suicide attempts (OR = 3.27, 95% CI [1.16, 9.27]). Status loss due to the COVID-19 pandemic emerges as risk factor for suicide in men. Men who experience status loss due to the COVID-19 pandemic while concomitantly exhibiting strong endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology have an additional increased risk of suicide

    Circulating microRNAs in sera correlate with soluble biomarkers of immune activation but do not predict mortality in ART treated individuals with HIV-1 infection: A case control study

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    Introduction: The use of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically reduced HIV-1 associated morbidity and mortality. However, HIV-1 infected individuals have increased rates of morbidity and mortality compared to the non-HIV-1 infected population and this appears to be related to end-organ diseases collectively referred to as Serious Non-AIDS Events (SNAEs). Circulating miRNAs are reported as promising biomarkers for a number of human disease conditions including those that constitute SNAEs. Our study sought to investigate the potential of selected miRNAs in predicting mortality in HIV-1 infected ART treated individuals. Materials and Methods: A set of miRNAs was chosen based on published associations with human disease conditions that constitute SNAEs. This case: control study compared 126 cases (individuals who died whilst on therapy), and 247 matched controls (individuals who remained alive). Cases and controls were ART treated participants of two pivotal HIV-1 trials. The relative abundance of each miRNA in serum was measured, by RTqPCR. Associations with mortality (all-cause, cardiovascular and malignancy) were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Correlations between miRNAs and CD4+ T cell count, hs-CRP, IL-6 and D-dimer were also assessed. Results: None of the selected miRNAs was associated with all-cause, cardiovascular or malignancy mortality. The levels of three miRNAs (miRs -21, -122 and -200a) correlated with IL-6 while miR-21 also correlated with D-dimer. Additionally, the abundance of miRs -31, -150 and -223, correlated with baseline CD4+ T cell count while the same three miRNAs plus miR- 145 correlated with nadir CD4+ T cell count. Discussion: No associations with mortality were found with any circulating miRNA studied. These results cast doubt onto the effectiveness of circulating miRNA as early predictors of mortality or the major underlying diseases that contribute to mortality in participants treated for HIV-1 infection

    Development and Validation of a Risk Score for Chronic Kidney Disease in HIV Infection Using Prospective Cohort Data from the D:A:D Study