24 research outputs found

    Benchmarking Test-Time Adaptation against Distribution Shifts in Image Classification

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    Test-time adaptation (TTA) is a technique aimed at enhancing the generalization performance of models by leveraging unlabeled samples solely during prediction. Given the need for robustness in neural network systems when faced with distribution shifts, numerous TTA methods have recently been proposed. However, evaluating these methods is often done under different settings, such as varying distribution shifts, backbones, and designing scenarios, leading to a lack of consistent and fair benchmarks to validate their effectiveness. To address this issue, we present a benchmark that systematically evaluates 13 prominent TTA methods and their variants on five widely used image classification datasets: CIFAR-10-C, CIFAR-100-C, ImageNet-C, DomainNet, and Office-Home. These methods encompass a wide range of adaptation scenarios (e.g. online adaptation v.s. offline adaptation, instance adaptation v.s. batch adaptation v.s. domain adaptation). Furthermore, we explore the compatibility of different TTA methods with diverse network backbones. To implement this benchmark, we have developed a unified framework in PyTorch, which allows for consistent evaluation and comparison of the TTA methods across the different datasets and network architectures. By establishing this benchmark, we aim to provide researchers and practitioners with a reliable means of assessing and comparing the effectiveness of TTA methods in improving model robustness and generalization performance. Our code is available at https://github.com/yuyongcan/Benchmark-TTA

    The effect of Trifluridine/tipiracil for patients with heavily pretreated metastatic gastric cancer: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Purpose. The presentation of this protocol is to scientifically evaluate the efficacy and safety of Trifluridine/tipiracil in patients with highly pretreated metastatic gastric cancer. Methods. The protocol followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols. We will systematically search MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CNKI (China national knowledge internet) databases up to 1 July 2020 to identify published articles. Using the Cochrane risk assessment tool to assess the methodological quality of the RCTs, and all included studies will be analyzed according to the criteria in the Cochrane Handbook. Review Manager 5.3 software will be used for literature quality evaluation and data analysis. Results. Objective to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Trifluridine/tipiracil in patients with heavily pretreated metastatic gastric cancer by analyzing the eligible data extracted under limited conditions. Conclusion. This study provides clear evidence to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Trifluridine/tipiracil for patients with highly pretreated metastatic gastric cancer, and the findings will also be published in a peer-reviewed journals

    Genetic pattern and gene localization of polydactyly in Beijing fatty chicken

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    <div><p>Polydactyly, a common heritable limb malformation in vertebrates, is characterized by supernumerary digits. In chickens, basic characteristics and rough dominant genes have been explored in past decades; however, the elaborate pattern of inheritance and the determinant gene remain obscure. In this study, different types of polydactylism were classified by the numbers and the shapes of toes, including the newly defined subtypes of B’ and G, for the Beijing fatty chicken, a native breed of chicken from China. Through experiments on hybridization, we demonstrated a complete dominant inheritance of polydactyly instead of an incomplete penetrance or genetic modification of the previous conjecture. In particular, by using the F2 population of the five-digit purebred line of Beijing fatty chicken backcrossed to Shiqiza chicken and by using restriction-site associated DNA based markers, we performed a genome-wide association study on the trait of polydactyly. Furthermore, whole genome resequencing strategy was applied to sweep SNPs across the whole genome. An outlier-based F<sub>st</sub> approach was employed to search for signatures of selection, and results indicated that the determinant mutation was found in the region ranging from 8.3 Mb to 8.7 Mb, where the polydactyly candidate gene LMBR1 was located. The G/T mutation of rs80659072 was identified to be highly associated with polydactyly in our resequencing and was validated in random samples from an expanded population. Thus, we confirmed that LMBR1 was the causative gene of polydactyly in the Beijing fatty chicken by using GWAS with restriction-site associated DNA based markers and resequencing.</p></div