79 research outputs found

    Synthetic dimensions in ultracold molecules: quantum strings and membranes

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    Synthetic dimensions alter one of the most fundamental properties in nature, the dimension of space. They allow, for example, a real three-dimensional system to act as effectively four-dimensional. Driven by such possibilities, synthetic dimensions have been engineered in ongoing experiments with ultracold matter. We show that rotational states of ultracold molecules can be used as synthetic dimensions extending to many - potentially hundreds of - synthetic lattice sites. Microwaves coupling rotational states drive fully controllable synthetic inter-site tunnelings, enabling, for example, topological band structures. Interactions leads to even richer behavior: when molecules are frozen in a real space lattice with uniform synthetic tunnelings, dipole interactions cause the molecules to aggregate to a narrow strip in the synthetic direction beyond a critical interaction strength, resulting in a quantum string or a membrane, with an emergent condensate that lives on this string or membrane. All these phases can be detected using measurements of rotational state populations.Comment: 5-page article + 4 figures + references; 7 pages + 4 figures in Supplemen

    Accessing Rydberg-dressed interactions using many-body Ramsey dynamics

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    We demonstrate that Ramsey spectroscopy can be used to observe Rydberg-dressed interactions. In contrast to many prior proposals, our scheme operates comfortably within experimentally measured lifetimes, and accesses a regime where quantum superpositions are crucial. The key idea is to build a spin-1/2 from one level that is Rydberg-dressed and another that is not. These levels may be hyperfine or long-lived electronic states. An Ising spin model governs the Ramsey dynamics, for which we derive an exact solution. Due to the structure of Rydberg interactions, the dynamics differs significantly from that in other spin systems. As one example, spin echo can increase the rate at which coherence decays. The results also apply to bare (undressed) Rydberg states as a special case, for which we quantitatively reproduce recent ultrafast experiments without fitting

    A Model for Scattering with Proliferating Resonances: Many Coupled Square Wells

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    We present a multichannel model for elastic interactions, comprised of an arbitrary number of coupled finite square-well potentials, and derive semi-analytic solutions for its scattering behavior. Despite the model's simplicity, it is flexible enough to include many coupled short-ranged resonances in the vicinity of the collision threshold, as is necessary to describe ongoing experiments in ultracold molecules and lanthanide atoms. We also introduce a simple, but physically realistic, statistical ensemble for parameters in this model. We compute the resulting probability distributions of nearest-neighbor resonance spacings and analyze them by fitting to the Brody distribution. We quantify the ability of alternative distribution functions, for resonance spacing and resonance number variance, to describe the crossover regime. The analysis demonstrates that the multichannel square-well model with the chosen ensemble of parameters naturally captures the crossover from integrable to chaotic scattering as a function of closed channel coupling strength.Comment: 11 pages, 8 figure

    Correlations and enlarged superconducting phase of tt-JJ_\perp chains of ultracold molecules on optical lattices

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    We compute physical properties across the phase diagram of the tt-JJ_\perp chain with long-range dipolar interactions, which describe ultracold polar molecules on optical lattices. Our results obtained by the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) indicate that superconductivity is enhanced when the Ising component JzJ_z of the spin-spin interaction and the charge component VV are tuned to zero, and even further by the long-range dipolar interactions. At low densities, a substantially larger spin gap is obtained. We provide evidence that long-range interactions lead to algebraically decaying correlation functions despite the presence of a gap. Although this has recently been observed in other long-range interacting spin and fermion models, the correlations in our case have the peculiar property of having a small and continuously varying exponent. We construct simple analytic models and arguments to understand the most salient features.Comment: published version with minor modification

    Cooling Fermions in an Optical Lattice by Adiabatic Demagnetization

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    The Fermi-Hubbard model describes ultracold fermions in an optical lattice and exhibits antiferromagnetic long-ranged order below the N\'{e}el temperature. However, reaching this temperature in the lab has remained an elusive goal. In other atomic systems, such as trapped ions, low temperatures have been successfully obtained by adiabatic demagnetization, in which a strong effective magnetic field is applied to a spin-polarized system, and the magnetic field is adiabatically reduced to zero. Unfortunately, applying this approach to the Fermi-Hubbard model encounters a fundamental obstacle: the SU(2)SU(2) symmetry introduces many level crossings that prevent the system from reaching the ground state, even in principle. However, by breaking the SU(2)SU(2) symmetry with a spin-dependent tunneling, we show that adiabatic demagnetization can achieve low temperature states. Using density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) calculations in one dimension, we numerically find that demagnetization protocols successfully reach low temperature states of a spin-anisotropic Hubbard model, and we discuss how to optimize this protocol for experimental viability. By subsequently ramping spin-dependent tunnelings to spin-independent tunnelings, we expect that our protocol can be employed to produce low-temperature states of the Fermi-Hubbard Model.Comment: References adde

    Stirring trapped atoms into fractional quantum Hall puddles

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    We theoretically explore the generation of few-body analogs of fractional quantum Hall states. We consider an array of identical few-atom clusters (n=2,3,4), each cluster trapped at the node of an optical lattice. By temporally varying the amplitude and phase of the trapping lasers, one can introduce a rotating deformation at each site. We analyze protocols for coherently transferring ground state clusters into highly correlated states, producing theoretical fidelities in excess of 99%.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures (13 subfigures) -- v2: published versio