48 research outputs found

    Role of iron supplementation in promoting maternal and fetal outcome

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    Zahra Yekta1, Reza Pourali2, Nikol Mladkova3, Mohammad Ghasemi-rad4, Farzane Boromand5, Khosrow Hazrati Tappeh6 1Department of Community Medicine; 2Medical Demonstration Facility, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Islamic Republic of Iran; 3Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, London, United Kingdom; 4Student Research Committee; 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology; 6Department of Mycology and Parasitology, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Islamic Republic of Iran Background: The data comparing daily versus intermittent iron supplementation during pregnancy remain controversial. This study was undertaken to compare the efficacy of daily versus two different intermittent iron supplementation regimes on hematologic markers and birth outcomes in nonanemic pregnant women. Methods: Two hundred and ten women with singleton pregnancies, no known disease, and hemoglobin levels >11.0 g/dL were randomly assigned to one of three groups, ie, Group A consuming two iron supplementation tablets once weekly (100 mg iron per week, n = 70), Group B consuming one tablet twice weekly (100 mg iron per week, n = 70) and Group C, consuming one tablet daily (50 mg iron per day, n = 70). No additional micronutrients were supplied. Hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels were measured at 20, 28, and 38 weeks. Pregnancy and birth outcomes (pregnancy termination, method of delivery, birth weight, stillbirth) were analyzed. Results: In total, 201 women completed the protocol. There was a significant difference in mean hemoglobin and ferritin levels in Group B at 38 weeks (P = 0.018 and P = 0.035, respectively) but this difference was not clinically significant (hemoglobin >12 g/dL, ferritin >19 µg/L). There was a significant increase in ferritin in Group C (P = 0.03) at 28 weeks. No significant difference was observed with respect to pregnancy or birth outcome across the groups. All regimens prevented the occurrence of hemoglobin <10.5 g/dL, but weekly supplementation was associated with development of a hemoglobin level <11.0 g/dL (risk ratio 0.044). Conclusion: Twice-weekly supplementation is as effective as daily supplementation, and may represent an acceptable compromise in iron supplementation regimens for nonanemic pregnant women. Keywords: iron supplementation, pregnancy, anemia, outcom

    A comprehensive review of a data centre for a cooling system

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    Cyber-Physical-Social Systems, commercial enterprises, and social networking use data centers to store, process, and distribute massive amounts of data. A data center serves as the foundation for all of these endeavors. The data center's workload and power consumption are increasing rapidly due to the demand for remote data services. Mechanical refrigeration and terminal cooling are the most critical components for most cooling systems. There is a way to transfer heat from the data center to the outside environment, but it's a complicated process. Air cooling systems and technology are most useful for room cooling and rack-level cooling. Because of their superior cooling performance and higher energy efficiency, air cooling has attracted more attention than water cooling in most existing data centers. The chillers and fans consume the most power of all the cooling equipment in the system. These methods can be divided into mechanism-based methods and data-driven methods for energy management of the cooling system. Operation management of cooling equipment is proposed to reduce power consumption, mainly using predictive model control and reinforcement learning-based methods. An overview of the data center's cooling system is presented in this paper, which focuses on the most common cooling solutions, power consumption modeling methods, and optimization control strategies, among others. In addition, the data center's cooling system is described as a current and future issue

    Trappin-2/Elafin Modulate Innate Immune Responses of Human Endometrial Epithelial Cells to PolyI∶C

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    BACKGROUND: Upon viral recognition, innate and adaptive antiviral immune responses are initiated by genital epithelial cells (ECs) to eradicate or contain viral infection. Such responses, however, are often accompanied by inflammation that contributes to acquisition and progression of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Hence, interventions/factors enhancing antiviral protection while reducing inflammation may prove beneficial in controlling the spread of STIs. Serine antiprotease trappin-2 (Tr) and its cleaved form, elafin (E), are alarm antimicrobials secreted by multiple cells, including genital epithelia. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated whether and how each Tr and E (Tr/E) contribute to antiviral defenses against a synthetic mimic of viral dsRNA, polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (polyI:C) and vesicular stomatitis virus. We show that delivery of a replication-deficient adenovector expressing Tr gene (Ad/Tr) to human endometrial epithelial cells, HEC-1A, resulted in secretion of functional Tr, whereas both Tr/E were detected in response to polyI:C. Moreover, Tr/E were found to significantly reduce viral replication by either acting directly on virus or through enhancing polyI:C-driven antiviral protection. The latter was associated with reduced levels of pro-inflammatory factors IL-8, IL-6, TNFα, lowered expression of RIG-I, MDA5 and attenuated NF-κB activation. Interestingly, enhanced polyI:C-driven antiviral protection of HEC-Ad/Tr cells was partially mediated through IRF3 activation, but not associated with higher induction of IFNβ, suggesting multiple antiviral mechanisms of Tr/E and the involvement of alternative factors or pathways. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first evidence of both Tr/E altering viral binding/entry, innate recognition and mounting of antiviral and inflammatory responses in genital ECs that could have significant implications for homeostasis of the female genital tract

    Cationic Host Defence Peptides:Potential as Antiviral Therapeutics

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    There is a pressing need to develop new antiviral treatments; of the 60 drugs currently available, half are aimed at HIV-1 and the remainder target only a further six viruses. This demand has led to the emergence of possible peptide therapies, with 15 currently in clinical trials. Advancements in understanding the antiviral potential of naturally occurring host defence peptides highlights the potential of a whole new class of molecules to be considered as antiviral therapeutics. Cationic host defence peptides, such as defensins and cathelicidins, are important components of innate immunity with antimicrobial and immunomodulatory capabilities. In recent years they have also been shown to be natural, broad-spectrum antivirals against both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses, including HIV-1, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus and herpes simplex virus. Here we review the antiviral properties of several families of these host peptides and their potential to inform the design of novel therapeutics

    Extraction And Characterization Of Potential Biodegradable Materials Based On Dioscorea Hispida Tubers

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    This study was driven by the stringent environmental legislation concerning the con-sumption and utilization of eco-friendly materials. Within this context, this paper aimed to examine the characteristics of starch and fibres from the Dioscorea hispida tuber plant to explore their potential as renewable materials. The extraction of the Dioscorea hispida starch and Dioscorea hispida fibres was carried out and the chemical composition, physical, thermal, morphological properties, and crystal-linity were studied. The chemical composition investigations revealed that the Dioscorea hispida starch (DHS) has a low moisture t (9.45%) and starch content (37.62%) compared to cassava, corn, sugar palm, and arrowroot starches. Meanwhile, the Dioscorea hispida fibres (DHF) are significantly low in hemicellulose (4.36%), cellulose (5.63%), and lignin (2.79%) compared to cassava, corn hull and sugar palm. In this investigation the chemical, physical, morphological and thermal properties of the Dioscorea hispida fibre and Dioscorea hispida starch were examined by chemical composition investigation, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), particle size distribution, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), respec-tively. It was found that Dioscorea hispida waste is promising alternative biomass and sustainable material with excellent potential as a renewable filler material for food packaging applications

    A predictive model of vertebral trabecular anisotropy from ex-vivo micro-CT

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    Spine-related disorders are amongst the most frequently encountered problems in clinical medicine. For several applications such as 1) to improve the assessment of the strength of the spine, as well as 2) to optimize the personalization of spinal interventions, image-based biomechanical modeling of the vertebrae is expected to play an important predictive role. However, this requires the construction of computational models that are subject-specific and comprehensive. In particular, they need to incorporate information about the vertebral anisotropic micro-architecture, which plays a central role in the biomechanical function of the vertebrae. In practice, however, accurate personalization of the vertebral trabeculae has proven to be difficult as its imaging in vivo is currently infeasible. Consequently, this paper presents a statistical approach for accurate prediction of the vertebral fabric tensors based on a training sample of ex vivo micro-CT images. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first predictive model proposed and validated for vertebral datasets. The method combines features selection and partial least squares regression in order to derive optimal latent variables for the prediction of the fabric tensors based on the more easily extracted shape and density information. Detailed validation with 20 ex vivo T12 vertebrae demonstrates the accuracy and consistency of the approach for the personalization of trabecular anisotropy

    Unlocking the Potential of Lignocellulosic Biomass Dragon Fruit (<i>Hylocereus polyrhizus</i>) in Bioplastics, Biocomposites and Various Commercial Applications

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    Dragon fruit, also called pitaya or pitahaya, is in the family Cactaceae. It is found in two genera: ‘Selenicereus’ and ‘Hylocereus’. The substantial growth in demand intensifies dragon fruit processing operations, and waste materials such as peels and seeds are generated in more significant quantities. The transformation of waste materials into value-added components needs greater focus since managing food waste is an important environmental concern. Two well-known varieties of dragon fruit are pitaya (Stenocereus) and pitahaya (Hylocereus), which are different in their sour and sweet tastes. The flesh of the dragon fruit constitutes about two-thirds (~65%) of the fruit, and the peel is approximately one-third (~22%). Dragon fruit peel is believed to be rich in pectin and dietary fibre. In this regard, extracting pectin from dragon fruit peel can be an innovative technology that minimises waste disposal and adds value to the peel. Dragon fruit are currently used in several applications, such as bioplastics, natural dyes and cosmetics. Further research is recommended for diverging its development in various areas and maturing the innovation of its usage

    EFFECT OF PANDANUS AMARYLLIFOLIUS FIBRE ON PHYSIO-MECHANICAL, THERMAL AND BIODEGRADABILITY OF THERMOPLASTIC CASSAVA STARCH/BEESWAX COMPOSITES

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    Pandanus amaryllifolius fbre (PAF) is an agricultural waste plant derived from the natural cellulosic source of fbre that can be used in various bio-material applications. In the present study, a novel biodegradable thermoplastic cassava starch/beeswax blends reinforced with Pandanus amaryllifolius fbre (TCPS/BW/PAF) bio-composites were successfully developed at varied Pandanus amaryllifolius fbre concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 wt% while beeswax loading was remained constant at 2.5 wt% concentration using hot moulding compression method. A comprehensive characterisation of TCPS/ BW/PAF bio-composites was examined in terms of their physical, mechanical, thermal and biodegradation properties. The addition of Pandanus amaryllifolius fbre has signifcantly improved tensile strength and tensile modulus at maximum value obtained 10.9 and 606.5 MPa, respectively as well as fexural strength and fexural modulus of bio-composite at maximum value obtained 21.37 and 523.76 MPa, respectively until 50 wt% Pandanus amaryllifolius fbre loading. Surface morphology of the fractured tensile samples PAF10 to PAF50 shows compacted structure and fbre breakage, indicating efective stress transfer from starch matrix to PAF during tensile force application. Furthermore, the addition of Pandanus amaryllifolius fbre improved thermal stability from TG, DTG and DSC results; improved crystallinity from XRD analysis; reduced water and moisture afnity from physical properties testing, and lowered the biodegradation rate. Overall, this study shows the potential of TCPS/BW/PAF bio-composites in biopolymer application and bio-packaging industries

    Patient-Specific Biomechanical Modeling of Bone Strength Using Statistically-Derived Fabric Tensors.

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    Low trauma fractures are amongst the most frequently encountered problems in the clinical assessment and treatment of bones, with dramatic health consequences for individuals and high financial costs for health systems. Consequently, significant research efforts have been dedicated to the development of accurate computational models of bone biomechanics and strength. However, the estimation of the fabric tensors, which describe the microarchitecture of the bone, has proven to be challenging using in vivo imaging. On the other hand, existing research has shown that isotropic models do not produce accurate predictions of stress states within the bone, as the material properties of the trabecular bone are anisotropic. In this paper, we present the first biomechanical study that uses statistically-derived fabric tensors for the estimation of bone strength in order to obtain patient-specific results. We integrate a statistical predictive model of trabecular bone microarchitecture previously constructed from a sample of ex vivo micro-CT datasets within a biomechanical simulation workflow. We assess the accuracy and flexibility of the statistical approach by estimating fracture load for two different databases and bone sites, i.e., for the femur and the T12 vertebra. The results obtained demonstrate good agreement between the statistically-driven and micro-CT-based estimates, with concordance coefficients of 98.6 and 95.5% for the femur and vertebra datasets, respectively
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