4,291 research outputs found

### The Superscattering Matrix for Two Dimensional Black Holes

A consistent Euclidean semi classical calculation is given for the
superscattering operator $\$$ in the RST model for states with a constant flux
of energy. The $\$$ operator is CPT invariant. There is no loss of quantum
coherence when the energy flux is less than a critical rate and complete loss
when the energy flux is critical.Comment: 12 pages (R/94/4

### The Gravitational Hamiltonian in the Presence of Non-Orthogonal Boundaries

This paper generalizes earlier work on Hamiltonian boundary terms by omitting
the requirement that the spacelike hypersurfaces $\Sigma_t$ intersect the
timelike boundary $\cal B$ orthogonally. The expressions for the action and
Hamiltonian are calculated and the required subtraction of a background
contribution is discussed. The new features of a Hamiltonian formulation with
non-orthogonal boundaries are then illustrated in two examples.Comment: 23 pages, 1 figure, LaTeX. The action is altered to include a corner
term which results in a different value for the non-orthogonal term. An
additional appendix with Euclidean results is included. To appear in Class.
Quant. Gra

### Quantum Coherence in Two Dimensions

The formation and evaporation of two dimensional black holes are discussed.
It is shown that if the radiation in minimal scalars has positive energy, there
must be a global event horizon or a naked singularity. The former would imply
loss of quantum coherence while the latter would lead to an even worse
breakdown of predictability. CPT invariance would suggest that there ought to
be past horizons as well. A way in which this could happen with wormholes is
described.Comment: 11 pages, DAMTP-R93/15, CALT-68-1861, Tex, 3 appended uuencoded
figure

### Generalized entropy and Noether charge

We find an expression for the generalized gravitational entropy of Hawking in
terms of Noether charge. As an example, the entropy of the Taub-Bolt spacetime
is calculated.Comment: 6 pages, revtex, reference correcte

### Conformal Invariance of Black Hole Temperature

It is shown that the surface gravity and temperature of a stationary black
hole are invariant under conformal transformations of the metric that are the
identity at infinity. More precisely, we find a conformal invariant definition
of the surface gravity of a conformal Killing horizon that agrees with the
usual definition(s) for a true Killing horizon and is proportional to the
temperature as defined by Hawking radiation. This result is reconciled with the
intimate relation between the trace anomaly and the Hawking effect, despite the
{\it non}invariance of the trace anomaly under conformal transformations.Comment: 8 pages, plain LaTeX, NSF-ITP-93-9

### Closed Trapped Surfaces in Cosmology

The existence of closed trapped surfaces need not imply a cosmological
singularity when the spatial hypersurfaces are compact. This is illustrated by
a variety of examples, in particular de Sitter spacetime admits many closed
trapped surfaces and obeys the null convergence condition but is non-singular
in the k=+1 frame.Comment: 11 pages. To appear in GRG, Vol 35 (August issue

### Universal criterion for black hole stability

It is shown that a non-rotating macroscopic black hole with very large
horizon area can remain in stable thermal equilibrium with Hawking radiation
provided {\it its mass, as a function of horizon area, exceeds its
microcanonical entropy, i.e., its entropy when isolated, without thermal
radiation or accretion, and having a constant horizon area} (in appropriate
units). The analysis does not use properties of specific classical spacetimes,
but depends only on the plausible assumption that the mass is a function of the
horizon area for large areas.Comment: 6 pages Latex, no figures; an equation adde

### Modified Gravity with a Non-minimal Gravitational Coupling to Matter

We consider modified theories of gravity with a direct coupling between
matter and geometry, denoted by an arbitrary function in terms of the Ricci
scalar. Due to such a coupling, the matter stress tensor is no longer conserved
and there is an energy transfer between the two components. By solving the
conservation equation, we argue that the matter system should gain energy in
this interaction, as demanded by the second law of thermodynamics. In a
cosmological setting, we show that although this kind of interaction may
account for cosmic acceleration, this latter together with direction of the
energy transfer constrain the coupling function.Comment: 13 Pages, Two figures, Accepted for publication in Physical Review

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