50 research outputs found

    "Abendland" : Henry Wadsworth Longfellow i świadomość ekopoetycka

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    The field of ecological criticism has, in the United States, concentrated upon recent and contemporary works, regularly invoking only a small group of earlier writers, such as Thoreau and Leopold, who are obvious precursors of modern ecological thinking. However, if one turns to 19th century writers whose popularity during their lifetimes shows that they voiced widely held views, one may conclude that the concerns of today’s ecological critics and writers have always figured prominently in the American consciousness. This paper examines some representative works of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, to show that this supremely conventional poet wrote feelingly on three issues that most preoccupy current ecological criticism: the condition and fate of Native Americans, the exploitation of nature, and the instability and destructiveness of modern civilization. Longfellow’s popularity in his own day indicates that his vast readership was likewise exercised by these concerns, and that, therefore, the “ecological consciousness” was quite widely held in mid-19th century America. The paper suggests obliquely that this conclusion may lead one to take a dim view of the practical effectiveness of an ecological consciousness in Longfellow’s day or in our own

    Tyr-Asp inhibition of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase affects plant redox metabolism

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    How organisms integrate metabolism with the external environment is a central question in biology. Here, we describe a novel regulatory small molecule, a proteogenic dipeptide Tyr-Asp, which improves plant tolerance to oxidative stress by directly interfering with glucose metabolism. Specifically, Tyr-Asp inhibits the activity of a key glycolytic enzyme, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPC), and redirects glucose toward pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and NADPH production. In line with the metabolic data, Tyr-Asp supplementation improved the growth performance of both Arabidopsis and tobacco seedlings subjected to oxidative stress conditions. Moreover, inhibition of Arabidopsis phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity by a group of branched-chain amino acid-containing dipeptides, but not by Tyr-Asp, points to a multisite regulation of glycolytic/gluconeogenic pathway by dipeptides. In summary, our results open the intriguing possibility that proteogenic dipeptides act as evolutionarily conserved small-molecule regulators at the nexus of stress, protein degradation, and metabolism.Fil: Moreno, Juan C.. Max Planck Institute Of Molecular Plant Physiology; AlemaniaFil: Rojas, Bruno Ezequiel. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Santa Fe. Instituto de Agrobiotecnología del Litoral. Universidad Nacional del Litoral. Instituto de Agrobiotecnología del Litoral; ArgentinaFil: Vicente, Rubén. Max Planck Institute Of Molecular Plant Physiology; AlemaniaFil: Gorka, Michal. Max Planck Institute Of Molecular Plant Physiology; AlemaniaFil: Matz, Timon. Max Planck Institute Of Molecular Plant Physiology; AlemaniaFil: Chodasiewicz, Monika. Max Planck Institute Of Molecular Plant Physiology; AlemaniaFil: Peralta?Ariza, Juan S.. Max Planck Institute Of Molecular Plant Physiology; AlemaniaFil: Zhang, Youjun. Max Planck Institute Of Molecular Plant Physiology; AlemaniaFil: Alseekh, Saleh. Max Planck Institute Of Molecular Plant Physiology; AlemaniaFil: Childs, Dorothee. European Molecular Biology Laboratory; AlemaniaFil: Luzarowski, Marcin. Max Planck Institute Of Molecular Plant Physiology; AlemaniaFil: Nikoloski, Zoran. Max Planck Institute Of Molecular Plant Physiology; AlemaniaFil: Zarivach, Raz. Ben Gurion University of the Negev; IsraelFil: Walther, Dirk. Max Planck Institute Of Molecular Plant Physiology; AlemaniaFil: Hartman, Matias Daniel. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Santa Fe. Instituto de Agrobiotecnología del Litoral. Universidad Nacional del Litoral. Instituto de Agrobiotecnología del Litoral; ArgentinaFil: Figueroa, Carlos Maria. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Santa Fe. Instituto de Agrobiotecnología del Litoral. Universidad Nacional del Litoral. Instituto de Agrobiotecnología del Litoral; ArgentinaFil: Iglesias, Alberto Alvaro. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Santa Fe. Instituto de Agrobiotecnología del Litoral. Universidad Nacional del Litoral. Instituto de Agrobiotecnología del Litoral; ArgentinaFil: Fernie, Alisdair R.. Max Planck Institute Of Molecular Plant Physiology; AlemaniaFil: Skirycz, Aleksandra. Max Planck Institute Of Molecular Plant Physiology; Alemani

    Three long period transiting giant planets from TESS

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    We report the discovery and orbital characterization of three new transiting warm giant planets. These systems were initially identified as presenting single transit events in the light curves generated from the full frame images of the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). Follow-up radial velocity measurements and additional light curves were used to determine the orbital periods and confirm the planetary nature of the candidates. The planets orbit slightly metal-rich late F- and early G-type stars. We find that TOI 4406b has a mass of MPM_P= 0.30 ±\pm 0.04 MJM_J , a radius of RPR_P= 1.00 ±\pm 0.02 RJR_J , and a low eccentricity orbit (e=0.15 ±\pm 0.05) with a period of P= 30.08364 ±\pm 0.00005 d . TOI 2338b has a mass of MPM_P= 5.98 ±\pm 0.20 MJM_J , a radius of RPR_P= 1.00 ±\pm 0.01 RJR_J , and a highly eccentric orbit (e= 0.676 ±\pm 0.002 ) with a period of P= 22.65398 ±\pm 0.00002 d . Finally, TOI 2589b has a mass of MPM_P= 3.50 ±\pm 0.10 MJM_J , a radius of RPR_P= 1.08 ±\pm 0.03 RJR_J , and an eccentric orbit (e = 0.522 ±\pm 0.006 ) with a period of P= 61.6277 ±\pm 0.0002 d . TOI 4406b and TOI 2338b are enriched in metals compared to their host stars, while the structure of TOI 2589b is consistent with having similar metal enrichment to its host star.Comment: 24 pages, 16 figures, accepted in A

    A European research agenda for somatic symptom disorders, bodily distress disorders, and functional disorders: Results of an estimate-talk-estimate delphi expert study

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    Background: Somatic Symptom Disorders (SSD), Bodily Distress Disorders (BDD) and functional disorders (FD) are associated with high medical and societal costs and pose a substantial challenge to the population and health policy of Europe. To meet this challenge, a specific research agenda is needed as one of the cornerstones of sustainable mental health research and health policy for SSD, BDD, and FD in Europe. Aim: To identify the main challenges and research priorities concerning SSD, BDD, and FD from a European perspective. Methods: Delphi study conducted from July 2016 until October 2017 in 3 rounds with 3 workshop meetings and 3 online surveys, involving 75 experts and 21 European countries. EURONET-SOMA and the European Association of Psychosomatic Medicine (EAPM) hosted the meetings. Results: Eight research priorities were identified: (1) Assessment of diagnostic profiles relevant to course and treatment outcome. (2) Development and evaluation of new, effective interventions. (3) Validation studies on questionnaires or semi-structured interviews that assess chronic medical conditions in this context. (4) Research into patients preferences for diagnosis and treatment. (5) Development of new methodologic designs to identify and explore mediators and moderators of clinical course and treatment outcomes (6). Translational research exploring how psychological and somatic symptoms develop from somatic conditions and biological and behavioral pathogenic factors. (7) Development of new, effective interventions to personalize treatment. (8) Implementation studies of treatment interventions in different settings, such as primary care, occupational care, general hospital and specialty mental health settings. The general public and policymakers will benefit from the development of new, effective, personalized interventions for SSD, BDD, and FD, that will be enhanced by translational research, as well as from the outcomes of research into patient involvement, GP-patient communication, consultation-liaison models and implementation. Conclusion: Funding for this research agenda, targeting these challenges in coordinated research networks such as EURONET-SOMA and EAPM, and systematically allocating resources by policymakers to this critical area in mental and physical well-being is urgently needed to improve efficacy and impact for diagnosis and treatment of SSD, BDD, and FD across Europe

    Breast cancer risk variants at 6q25 display different phenotype associations and regulate ESR1, RMND1 and CCDC170.

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    We analyzed 3,872 common genetic variants across the ESR1 locus (encoding estrogen receptor α) in 118,816 subjects from three international consortia. We found evidence for at least five independent causal variants, each associated with different phenotype sets, including estrogen receptor (ER(+) or ER(-)) and human ERBB2 (HER2(+) or HER2(-)) tumor subtypes, mammographic density and tumor grade. The best candidate causal variants for ER(-) tumors lie in four separate enhancer elements, and their risk alleles reduce expression of ESR1, RMND1 and CCDC170, whereas the risk alleles of the strongest candidates for the remaining independent causal variant disrupt a silencer element and putatively increase ESR1 and RMND1 expression.This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Nature Publishing Group via http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.352

    Genomic Relationships, Novel Loci, and Pleiotropic Mechanisms across Eight Psychiatric Disorders

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    Genetic influences on psychiatric disorders transcend diagnostic boundaries, suggesting substantial pleiotropy of contributing loci. However, the nature and mechanisms of these pleiotropic effects remain unclear. We performed analyses of 232,964 cases and 494,162 controls from genome-wide studies of anorexia nervosa, attention-deficit/hyper-activity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, and Tourette syndrome. Genetic correlation analyses revealed a meaningful structure within the eight disorders, identifying three groups of inter-related disorders. Meta-analysis across these eight disorders detected 109 loci associated with at least two psychiatric disorders, including 23 loci with pleiotropic effects on four or more disorders and 11 loci with antagonistic effects on multiple disorders. The pleiotropic loci are located within genes that show heightened expression in the brain throughout the lifespan, beginning prenatally in the second trimester, and play prominent roles in neurodevelopmental processes. These findings have important implications for psychiatric nosology, drug development, and risk prediction.Peer reviewe

    Albiglutide and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (Harmony Outcomes): a double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial

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    Background: Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists differ in chemical structure, duration of action, and in their effects on clinical outcomes. The cardiovascular effects of once-weekly albiglutide in type 2 diabetes are unknown. We aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of albiglutide in preventing cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Methods: We did a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial in 610 sites across 28 countries. We randomly assigned patients aged 40 years and older with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (at a 1:1 ratio) to groups that either received a subcutaneous injection of albiglutide (30–50 mg, based on glycaemic response and tolerability) or of a matched volume of placebo once a week, in addition to their standard care. Investigators used an interactive voice or web response system to obtain treatment assignment, and patients and all study investigators were masked to their treatment allocation. We hypothesised that albiglutide would be non-inferior to placebo for the primary outcome of the first occurrence of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke, which was assessed in the intention-to-treat population. If non-inferiority was confirmed by an upper limit of the 95% CI for a hazard ratio of less than 1·30, closed testing for superiority was prespecified. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02465515. Findings: Patients were screened between July 1, 2015, and Nov 24, 2016. 10 793 patients were screened and 9463 participants were enrolled and randomly assigned to groups: 4731 patients were assigned to receive albiglutide and 4732 patients to receive placebo. On Nov 8, 2017, it was determined that 611 primary endpoints and a median follow-up of at least 1·5 years had accrued, and participants returned for a final visit and discontinuation from study treatment; the last patient visit was on March 12, 2018. These 9463 patients, the intention-to-treat population, were evaluated for a median duration of 1·6 years and were assessed for the primary outcome. The primary composite outcome occurred in 338 (7%) of 4731 patients at an incidence rate of 4·6 events per 100 person-years in the albiglutide group and in 428 (9%) of 4732 patients at an incidence rate of 5·9 events per 100 person-years in the placebo group (hazard ratio 0·78, 95% CI 0·68–0·90), which indicated that albiglutide was superior to placebo (p<0·0001 for non-inferiority; p=0·0006 for superiority). The incidence of acute pancreatitis (ten patients in the albiglutide group and seven patients in the placebo group), pancreatic cancer (six patients in the albiglutide group and five patients in the placebo group), medullary thyroid carcinoma (zero patients in both groups), and other serious adverse events did not differ between the two groups. There were three (<1%) deaths in the placebo group that were assessed by investigators, who were masked to study drug assignment, to be treatment-related and two (<1%) deaths in the albiglutide group. Interpretation: In patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, albiglutide was superior to placebo with respect to major adverse cardiovascular events. Evidence-based glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists should therefore be considered as part of a comprehensive strategy to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes. Funding: GlaxoSmithKline

    Canagliflozin and renal outcomes in type 2 diabetes and nephropathy

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    BACKGROUND Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the leading cause of kidney failure worldwide, but few effective long-term treatments are available. In cardiovascular trials of inhibitors of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2), exploratory results have suggested that such drugs may improve renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS In this double-blind, randomized trial, we assigned patients with type 2 diabetes and albuminuric chronic kidney disease to receive canagliflozin, an oral SGLT2 inhibitor, at a dose of 100 mg daily or placebo. All the patients had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 30 to <90 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area and albuminuria (ratio of albumin [mg] to creatinine [g], >300 to 5000) and were treated with renin–angiotensin system blockade. The primary outcome was a composite of end-stage kidney disease (dialysis, transplantation, or a sustained estimated GFR of <15 ml per minute per 1.73 m2), a doubling of the serum creatinine level, or death from renal or cardiovascular causes. Prespecified secondary outcomes were tested hierarchically. RESULTS The trial was stopped early after a planned interim analysis on the recommendation of the data and safety monitoring committee. At that time, 4401 patients had undergone randomization, with a median follow-up of 2.62 years. The relative risk of the primary outcome was 30% lower in the canagliflozin group than in the placebo group, with event rates of 43.2 and 61.2 per 1000 patient-years, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59 to 0.82; P=0.00001). The relative risk of the renal-specific composite of end-stage kidney disease, a doubling of the creatinine level, or death from renal causes was lower by 34% (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.81; P<0.001), and the relative risk of end-stage kidney disease was lower by 32% (hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.86; P=0.002). The canagliflozin group also had a lower risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.95; P=0.01) and hospitalization for heart failure (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.80; P<0.001). There were no significant differences in rates of amputation or fracture. CONCLUSIONS In patients with type 2 diabetes and kidney disease, the risk of kidney failure and cardiovascular events was lower in the canagliflozin group than in the placebo group at a median follow-up of 2.62 years
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