4,317 research outputs found

    Reintegrative Shaming, Shame and Criminal justice

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    This study tested the implication of reintegrative shaming theory (RST) (Braithwaite, 1989) that social disapproval (shaming) has an effect on the emotions that offenders feel. Interviews were conducted with 720 participants who had recently attended a court case or family group conference in the Australian Capital Territory, having been apprehended for driving while over the legal alcohol limit. Analyses show that shame-related emotions were predicted by perceptions of social disapproval, but that the relationship was more complex than expected. Differences between the shame-related emotions may have implications for theory. Comparisons between the court cases and family group conferences were consistent with expectations that restorative justice interventions would be more reintegrative, but also showed that they were not perceived as less stigmatizing

    Sloppy Joes and Carebears

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    A comedic recounting of a memory emblazoning the idea of shame into a young boy\u27s mind

    Performance of a Fire-and-Forget Anti-Tank Missile with a Damaged Wing

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    A mathematical model is developed for an anti-tank missile and its guidance algorithms. The aerodynamic model is separated into two parts, the airframe and external lifting surfaces in order to model damage to the airframe. Radar data is compared to that of the proposed model and it is shown that the model accurately replicates the true flight dynamics. Two types of field handling damage are modeled, a damaged mid-body wing with 50% of its planform area missing, and an un-deployed mid-body wing. Monte Carlo simulations are performed for each type of damage and the eight possible mid-body wing locations. The results predict that the anti-tank guided missile\u27s performance in response to damage is extremely sensitive to the radial location of damage. Vertical mid-body wing damage had little effect on performance while damage to horizontal and adjacent mid- body wings resulted in significant failures. The failure mode demonstrated was not a large increase in impact errors, but rather failure of the seeker used for guidance due to excessive roll and yawing of the airframe

    Isolating Lactobacillus from Soil Samples to Develop in vitro Methodology to Produce a Probiotic for Control of Necrotic Enteritis in Chickens

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    Necrotic enteritis is a serious disease in the global poultry industry, estimated to cost US$6 billion per annum due to control strategies and loss of production. It is a multifactorial disease which is most commonly associated with the increased growth of Clostridium perfringens in the chicken’s gastrointestinal tract. Due to the increasing risk of antibiotic resistance globally, numerous countries have prohibited the prophylactic use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in the poultry industry, resulting in an increase in infections. Probiotics offer a potential solution; live bacterial feed supplements which aid the maintenance of a healthy microbiota and reduce pathogen morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to investigate whether soil is an appropriate sample source for the commonly used probiotic genera, Lactobacilli. A range of in vitro antagonistic assays were conducted to detect inhibitory activity towards the poultry pathogen C. perfringens. A total of 600 soil samples from around Lincoln, UK and 381 samples sourced from chicken gastrointestinal tracts were screened for 11 Lactobacillus spp. using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). From these, 21 Lactobacilli isolates were identified as five different species (L.fermentum, L. paracasei, L. gasseri, L. delbrueckii and L. salivarius). These samples were then tested for antagonistic effect against C. perfringens ATCC 13124, using a range of assays. Two of the assays (antagonistic plug and co-culture assays) displayed quantitative data which indicated samples NHFS045 and HP199T had the greatest antagonistic effect. These isolates were then tested against 11 different strains of C. perfringens sampled from chicken intestines from a previous study so as to test antagonistic range. Lactobacillus samples (NHFS045 and HP199T) were able to inhibit the growth of all 11 C. perfringens strains. The tolerance of the Lactobacillus isolates to low pH conditions was also tested. Both were able to grow at pH 4, indicating that they would tolerate intestinal pH conditions. The results of this study show that potential probiotic bacteria with an inhibitory effect towards the poultry pathogen C. perfringens can be found in soil. This is a far quicker and easier sample source compared to a chicken’s intestine; the current most common source for probiotic bacteria. Additionally, this study has identified the two antagonistic assays which should be conducted before in vivo trials (antagonistic plug and co�culture assays) so as to quantify and compare antagonistic effectiveness. Subsequently, the antagonistic range assay demonstrated that the Lactobacillus isolates inhibited C. perfringens isolates which were resistant against five widely used antibiotics (tetracycline, bacitracin, tylosin, penicillin and erythromycin). This indicates that these Lactobacillus isolates would be a more suitable treatment. All experimentation has shown that HP199T and NHFS045 isolates are suitable candidates for a poultry probiotic and should therefore move onto in vivo trials

    Measuring the health-related quality of life of children with impaired mobility:examining correlation and agreement between children and parent proxies

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    Abstract Objective The objective of this research project was to evaluate the validity of proxy health-related quality of life measures in the context of paediatric mobility impairment. Accurate health-related quality of life data is essential for quality-adjusted life year calculation; a key outcome in economic evaluation. Thirteen child-parent dyads (13 children with mobility impairments, 13 parent proxies) were asked to complete a range of outcome measures (EQ-5D-Y, VAS and HUI2/3) relating to the child’s health. The relationship between respondent outcomes was examined using tests of respondent type effect (Wilcoxon signed-rank), correlation (Spearman’s rank-order) and agreement (Bland–Altman plots). Results Parent proxies significantly undervalued the health-related quality of life of their mobility-impaired children: children rated their health-related quality of life higher than their parents by proxy on all measures. The VAS had the highest overall mean score for children and proxies (79.50 [SD = 15.01] and 75.77 [SD = 14.70] respectively). Child and proxy results were significantly different (p < 0.05) for all measures besides the VAS (p = 0.138). Strong correlation and acceptable agreement were observed for equivalent child/proxy VAS and HUI measures. The EQ-5D-Y exhibited the least agreement between children and proxies. Sufficient association between child/proxy VAS and HUI measures indicated a degree of interchangeability

    Erythrocyte n-6 Fatty Acids and Risk for Cardiovascular Outcomes and Total Mortality in the Framingham Heart Study

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    Background: The prognostic value of erythrocyte levels of n-6 fatty acids (FAs) for total mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes remains an open question. Methods: We examined cardiovascular (CV) outcomes and death in 2500 individuals in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort without prevalent CVD (mean age 66 years, 57% women) as a function of baseline levels of different length n-6 FAs (18 carbon, 20 carbon, and 22 carbon) in the erythrocyte membranes. Clinical outcomes were monitored for up to 9.5 years (median follow up, 7.26 years). Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for a variety of demographic characteristics, clinical status, and red blood cell (RBC) n-6 and long chain n-3 FA content. Results: There were 245 CV events, 119 coronary heart disease (CHD) events, 105 ischemic strokes, 58 CVD deaths, and 350 deaths from all causes. Few associations between either mortality or CVD outcomes were observed for n-6 FAs, with those that were observed becoming non-significant after adjusting for n-3 FA levels. Conclusions: Higher circulating levels of marine n-3 FA levels are associated with reduced risk for incident CVD and ischemic stroke and for death from CHD and all-causes; however, in the same sample little evidence exists for association with n-6 FAs. Further work is needed to identify a full profile of FAs associated with cardiovascular risk and mortality
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