8,881 research outputs found

    X-ray Variability and Emission Process of the Radio Jet in M87

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    We monitored the M87 jet with the ACIS-S detector on Chandra with 5 observations between 2002 Jan and 2002 Jul. Our goal was to determine the presence and degree of variability in morphology, intensity, and spectral parameters. We find strong variability of the core and HST-1, the knot lying 0.8" from the core. These observations were designed to constrain the X-ray emission process: whereas synchrotron emission would necessitate the presence of extremely high energy electrons with a halflife of a few years or less, inverse Compton emission from a relativistic jet would arise from low energy electrons with very long halflives. Currently, all indications point to a synchrotron process for the X-ray emission from the M87 jet. We give key parameters for a ``modest beaming'' synchrotron model.Comment: 4 pages with 2 embedded figures (1 in color). To be published in the proceedings of the Bologna Jet Workshop "The Physics of Relativistic Jets in the CHANDRA and XMM Era", 23-27 September 2002, Brunetti, Harris, Sambruna, and Setti, editors. 2003, New Ast. Re

    Inverse Medea as a Novel Gene Drive System for Local Population Replacement: A Theoretical Analysis

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    One strategy to control mosquito-borne diseases, such as malaria and dengue fever, on a regional scale is to use gene drive systems to spread disease-refractory genes into wild mosquito populations. The development of a synthetic Medea element that has been shown to drive population replacement in laboratory Drosophila populations has provided encouragement for this strategy but has also been greeted with caution over the concern that transgenes may spread into countries without their consent. Here, we propose a novel gene drive system, inverse Medea, which is strong enough to bring about local population replacement but is unable to establish itself beyond an isolated release site. The system consists of 2 genetic components—a zygotic toxin and maternal antidote—which render heterozygous offspring of wild-type mothers unviable. Through population genetic analysis, we show that inverse Medea will only spread when it represents a majority of the alleles in a population. The element is best located on an autosome and will spread to fixation provided any associated fitness costs are dominant and to very high frequency otherwise. We suggest molecular tools that could be used to build the inverse Medea system and discuss its utility for a confined release of transgenic mosquitoes

    X-ray Emission from the 3C 273 Jet

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    We present results from four recent Chandra monitoring observations of the jet in 3C 273 using the ACIS detector, obtained between November 2003 and July 2004. We find that the X-ray emission comes in two components: unresolved knots that are smaller than the corresponding optically emitting knots and a broad channel that is about the same width as the optical interknot region. We compute the jet speed under the assumption that the X-ray emission is due to inverse Compton scattering of the cosmic microwave background, finding that the dimming of the jet X-ray emission to the jet termination relative to the radio emission may be due to bulk deceleration.Comment: 2 pages, 2 figures, to appear in the proceedings of "The X-ray Universe 2005", San Lorenzo de El Escorial (Spain), 26-30 September 200

    X-ray Emission Processes in Extragalactic Jets, Lobes and Hot Spots

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    This paper is a brief review of the processes responsible for X-ray emission from radio jets, lobes and hot spots. Possible photons in inverse Compton scattering models include the radio synchrotron radiation itself (i.e. synchrotron self-Compton [SSC] emission), the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the galaxy starlight and radiation from the active nucleus. SSC emission has been detected from a number of hot spots. Scattering of the CMB is expected to dominate for jets (and possibly hot spots) undergoing bulk relativistic motion close to the direction towards the observer. Scattering of infrared radiation from the AGN should be observable from radio lobes, especially if they are close to the active nucleus. Synchrotron radiation is detected in some sources, most notably the jet of M87. I briefly discuss why different hot spots emit X-rays by different emission mechanisms and the nature of the synchrotron spectra.Comment: To be published in the proceedings of the Bologna conference ``The Physics of Relativistic Jets in the Chandra and XMM Era'', New Astronomy Revie

    Singlets and reflection symmetric spin systems

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    We rigorously establish some exact properties of reflection symmetric spin systems with antiferromagnetic crossing bonds: At least one ground state has total spin zero and a positive semidefinite coefficient matrix. The crossing bonds obey an ice rule. This augments some previous results which were limited to bipartite spin systems and is of particular interest for frustrated spin systems.Comment: 11 pages, LaTeX 2

    Review of \u3cem\u3eThe Loyal West: Civil War and Reunion in Middle America\u3c/em\u3e by Matthew E. Stanley

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    Interest in Civil War memory and post–Civil War sectional reconciliation has expanded greatly in recent years, as two 2016 historiographical essays attest.1 Matthew E. Stanley\u27s new book, The Loyal West: Civil War and Reunion in Middle America is thus well timed to make an important contribution to our evolving understanding of the process of sectional reconciliation in the decades following the Civil War. With his focus on Kentucky\u27s northern neighbors in the lower portions of Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio, the editorial staff of the Register of the Kentucky Historical Society believe Stanley\u27s book will help historians better understand the role Kentucky played in the events of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, which saw a white supremacist version of Civil War memory eclipse an emancipationist version nationally. We have asked four nineteenth-century historians to consider Stanley\u27s book from varying perspectives. M. Keith Harris teaches history at a private high school in Los Angeles, California. He is the author of Across the Bloody Chasm: The Culture of Commemoration among Civil War Veterans (2014) and is currently writing a book on D. W. Griffith\u27s controversial 1915 silent film, The Birth of a Nation. Anne E. Marshall is an associate professor of history at Mississippi State University and the author of Creating a Confederate Kentucky: The Lost Cause and Civil War Memory in a Border State (2012). James Marten is professor and chair of the history department at Marquette University. His most recent books are Sing Not War: The Lives of Union and Confederate Veterans in Gilded Age America (2011) and America\u27s Corporal: James Tanner in War and Peace (2014). Kristopher Maulden is a visiting assistant professor of history at Columbia College in Missouri. He is completing a book manuscript on the influence of Federalist politics and federal policy in the Ohio River Valley, and he is engaged in a study of nineteenth-century Ohio newspaper editor Charles Hammond. Finally, the author of The Loyal West, Matthew E. Stanley, assistant professor of history at Albany State University, will respond to the reviews

    Young men and gambling in the ACT: an exploratory study of attitudes, perceptions and engagement.

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    This report presents key findings of a 2005 study into the attitudes towards, perceptions of and engagement with gambling by young males (aged 18 – 25 years) in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). The study is based primarily on in-depth semi-structured interviews with a sample of young males resident in the ACT

    Scaling of Splay and Total Rigidity for Elastic Percolation on the Triangular Lattice

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    The randomly diluted elastic network with central force interactions is simulated on the triangular lattice using a constraint analysis of cluster displacement vectors. The exponents for the percolation of splay and total rigidity are found to be the same, ν=1.14±0.1, γ=1.6±0.3, and β=0.46±0.4. The concentration of bonds that are in clusters rigid only with respect to a splay deformation is evaluated as a function of bond concentration. The area under the resulting distribution diminishes with lattice size as ∼L−1.1, indicating that splay and total rigidity have the same threshold, pc≊0.64