218 research outputs found

    Duo modules

    Get PDF
    Let R be a ring. An R-module M is called a (weak) duo module provided every (direct summand) submodule of M is fully invariant. It is proved that if R is a commutative domain with field of fractions K then a torsion-free uniform R-module is a duo module if and only if every element k in K such that kM is contained in M belongs to R. Moreover every non-zero finitely generated torsion-free duo R-module is uniform. In addition, if R is a Dedekind domain then a torsion R-module is a duo module if and only if it is a weak duo module and this occurs precisely when the P-primary component of M is uniform for every maximal ideal P of R

    Developing an Unnatural Amino Acid-Specific Aminoacyl tRNA Synthetase

    Get PDF
    Unnatural Amino Acids (UAAs), amino acids not present in the human genetic code, have been synthesized to have a broad range of useful properties, in this case, as metal-binders which could have drug delivery applications. In order for the cell to place a UAA into the protein, two components, a unique aminoacyl tRNA synthetase and a corresponding tRNA must be present. If an amino acid is successfully charged to the tRNA, a stop codon is suppressed and a functional protein is built with the UAA at the mutation site. Such a tRNA molecule has previously been developed, as well as many synthetases specific to UAAs. In this work, the range of UAAs which can be incorporated into proteins using the E. coli’s own machinery is expanded by the development of a novel aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. By making a library of synthetase-coding plasmid variants and performing positive and negative screenings, the binding pocket of the synthetase can be modified for specificity to a UAA while not allowing the tRNA to be charged with a natural amino acid. In this work, we are attempting to evolve new tRNA synthetases for the incorporation of metal-binding amino acids by developing the plasmid library and a screening system to find synthetase variants meeting these criteria

    Modules with unique closure relative to a torsion theory. III

    No full text
    We continue the study of modules over a general ring R whose submodules have a unique closure relative to a hereditary torsion theory on Mod-R. It is proved that, for a given ring R and a hereditary torsion theory τ on Mod-R, every submodule of every right R-module has a unique closure with respect to τ if and only if τ is generated by projective simple right R-modules. In particular, a ring R is a right Kasch ring if and only if every submodule of every right R-module has a unique closure with respect to the Lambek torsion theory.Продовжено вивчення модулів над загальним кільцем R, субмодулі якого мають єдине замикання відносно спадкової теорії скруту на Mod-R. Доведено, що для заданих кільця R та спадкової теорії скруту τ на Mod-R кожний субмодуль кожного правого R-модуля має єдине замикання відносно τ тоді i тільки тоді, коли τ породжується проективними простими правими R-модулями. Зокрема, кільце R є правим кільцем Каша тоді i тільки тоді, коли кожний субмодуль кожного правого R-модуля має єдине замикання відносно теорії скруту за Ламбеком

    Module decompositions via Rickart modules

    Get PDF
    This work is devoted to the investigation of module decompositions which arise from Rickart modules, socle and radical of modules. In this regard, the structure and several illustrative examples of inverse split modules relative to the socle and radical are given. It is shown that a module M has decompositions M = Soc(M) ⊕ N and M = Rad(M) ⊕ K where N and K are Rickart if and only if M is Soc(M)-inverse split and Rad(M)-inverse split, respectively. Right Soc(·)-inverse split left perfect rings and semiprimitive right hereditary rings are determined exactly. Also, some characterizations for a ring R which has a decomposition R = Soc(RR) ⊕ I with I a hereditary Rickart module are obtained

    A generalization of supplemented modules

    No full text
    Let R be an arbitrary ring with identity and M a right R-module. In this paper, we introduce a class of modules which is an analogous of δ-supplemented modules defined by Kosan. The module M is called principally δ-supplemented, for all m∈M there exists a submodule A of M with M=mR+A and (mR)∩A δ-small in A. We prove that some results of δ-supplemented modules can be extended to principally δ-supplemented modules for this general settings. We supply some examples showing that there are principally δ-supplemented modules but not δ-supplemented. We also introduce principally δ-semiperfect modules as a generalization of δ-semiperfect modules and investigate their properties

    Generalized symmetric rings

    No full text
    In this paper, we introduce a class of rings which is a generalization of symmetric rings. Let R be a ring with identity. A ring R is called central symmetric if for any a, b,c∈R, abc=0 implies bac belongs to the center of R. Since every symmetric ring is central symmetric, we study sufficient conditions for central symmetric rings to be symmetric. We prove that some results of symmetric rings can be extended to central symmetric rings for this general settings. We show that every central reduced ring is central symmetric, every central symmetric ring is central reversible, central semmicommutative, 2-primal, abelian and so directly finite. It is proven that the polynomial ring R[x] is central symmetric if and only if the Laurent polynomial ring R[x,x−1] is central symmetric. Among others, it is shown that for a right principally projective ring R, R is central symmetric if and only if R[x]/(xn) is central Armendariz, where n≥2 is a natural number and (xn) is the ideal generated by x