8,139 research outputs found

    Resonance of Domain Wall in a Ferromagnetic Nanostrip: Relation Between Distortion and Velocity

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    The resonance of the magnetic domain wall under the applied field amplifies its velocity compared to the one-dimensional model. To quantify the amplification, we define the distortion variation rate of the domain wall that can represent how fast and severely the wall shape is variated. Introducing that rate gives a way to bring the resonance into the one-dimensional domain wall dynamics model. We obtain the dissipated energy and domain wall velocity amplification by calculating the distortion variation rate. The relationship between velocity and distortion variation rate agrees well with micromagnetic simulation.Comment: 15 pages, 4 figure

    FGF10 Is Required for Circumvallate Papilla Morphogenesis by Maintaining Lgr5 Activity

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    Taste buds develop in different regions of the mammal oral cavity. Adult stem cells in various organs including the tongue papillae are marked by leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) and its homolog, Lgr6. Recent studies have reported that adult taste stem/progenitor cells in circumvallate papilla (CVP) on the posterior tongue are Lgr5-positive. In this study, we confirm the Lgr5 expression pattern during CVP development. A previous study reported that mesenchymal Fgf10 is necessary for maintaining epithelial Lgr5-positive stem/progenitor cells. To confirm the interaction between Lgr5-positive CVP epithelium and mesenchymal factor FGF10, reverse recombination (180-degree) was performed after tongue epithelium detachment. FGF10 protein-soaked bead implantation was performed after reverse recombination to rescue CVP development. Moreover, we reduced mesenchymal Fgf10 by BIO and SU5402 treatment which disrupted CVP morphogenesis. This study suggests that the crosstalk between epithelial Lgr5 and mesenchymal Fgf10 plays a pivotal role in CVP epithelium invagination during mouse tongue CVP development by maintaining Lgr5-positive stem/progenitor cells

    Nearly Massless Electrons in the Silicon Interface with a Metal Film

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    We demonstrate the realization of nearly massless electrons in the most widely used device material, silicon, at the interface with a metal film. Using angle-resolved photoemission, we found that the surface band of a monolayer lead film drives a hole band of the Si inversion layer formed at the interface with the film to have nearly linear dispersion with an effective mass about 20 times lighter than bulk Si and comparable to graphene. The reduction of mass can be accounted for by repulsive interaction between neighboring bands of the metal film and Si substrate. Our result suggests a promising way to take advantage of massless carriers in silicon-based thin-film devices, which can also be applied for various other semiconductor devices.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures, accepted for publication in Physical Review Letter

    An 8-Node Shell Element for Nonlinear Analysis of Shells Using the Refined Combination of Membrane and Shear Interpolation Functions

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    An improved 8-node shell finite element applicable for the geometrically linear and nonlinear analyses of plates and shells is presented. Based on previous first-order shear deformation theory, the finite element model is further improved by the combined use of assumed natural strains and different sets of collocation points for the interpolation of the different strain components. The influence of the shell element with various conditions such as locations, number of enhanced membranes, and shear interpolation is also identified. By using assumed natural strain method with proper interpolation functions, the present shell element generates neither membrane nor shear locking behavior even when full integration is used in the formulation. Furthermore, to characterize the efficiency of these modifications of the 8-node shell finite elements, numerical studies are carried out for the geometrically linear and non-linear analysis of plates and shells. In comparison to some other shell elements, numerical examples for the methodology indicate that the modified element described locking-free behavior and better performance. More specifically, the numerical examples of annular plate presented herein show good validity, efficiency, and accuracy to the developed nonlinear shell element

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