1,721 research outputs found

    Physical Origin and Generic Control of Magnonic Band Gaps of Dipole-Exchange Spin Waves in Width-Modulated-Nanostrip Waveguides

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    We report, for the first time, on a novel planar structure of magnonic-crystal waveguides, made of a single magnetic material, in which the allowed and forbidden bands of propagating dipole-exchange spin-waves can be manipulated by the periodic modulation of different widths in thin-film nanostrips. The origin of the presence of several magnonic wide band gaps and the crucial parameters for controlling those band gaps of the order of ~10 GHz are found by micromagnetic numerical and analytical calculations. This work can offer a route to the potential application to broad-band spin-wave filters in the GHz frequency range.Comment: 24 pages, 8 figure

    Normal modes of coupled vortex gyration in two spatially separated magnetic nanodisks

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    We found from analytical derivations and micromagnetic numerical simulations that there exist two distinct normal modes in apparently complex vortex gyrotropic motions in two dipolar-coupled magnetic nanodisks. The normal modes have characteristic higher and lower single angular eigenfrequencies with their own elliptical orbits elongated along the x (bonding axis) and y axes, respectively. The superposition of the two normal modes results in coupled vortex gyrations, which depend on the relative vortex-state configuration in a pair of dipolar-coupled disks. This normal-mode representation is a simple means of understanding the observed complex vortex gyrations in two or more dipolar-interacting disks of various vortex-state configurations.Comment: 18 pages, 3 figures, 1 tabl

    Total Reflection and Negative Refraction of Dipole-Exchange Spin Waves at Magnetic Interfaces: Micromagnetic Modeling Study

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    We demonstrated that dipole-exchange spin waves traveling in geometrically restricted magnetic thin films satisfy the same laws of reflection and refraction as light waves. Moreover, we found for the first time novel wave behaviors of dipole-exchange spin waves such as total reflection and negative refraction. The total reflection in laterally inhomogeneous thin films composed of two different magnetic materials is associated with the forbidden modes of refracted dipole-exchange spin waves. The negative refraction occurs at a 90 degree domain-wall magnetic interface that is introduced by a cubic magnetic anisotropy in the media, through the anisotropic dispersion of dipole-exchange spin waves.Comment: 13 pages, 5 figure

    GaAs droplet quantum dots with nanometer-thin capping layer for plasmonic applications

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    We report on the growth and optical characterisation of droplet GaAs quantum dots with extremely-thin (11 nm) capping layers. To achieve such result, an internal thermal heating step is introduced during the growth and its role in the morphological properties of the quantum dots obtained is investigated via scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. Photoluminescence measurements at cryogenic temperatures show optically stable, sharp and bright emission from single quantum dots, at near-infrared wavelengths. Given the quality of their optical properties and the proximity to the surface, such emitters are ideal candidates for the investigation of near field effects, like the coupling to plasmonic modes, in order to strongly control the directionality of the emission and/or the spontaneous emission rate, crucial parameters for quantum photonic applications.Comment: 1 pages, 3 figure

    A gigahertz-range spin-wave filter composed of width-modulated nanostrip magnonic-crystal waveguides

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    We found a robust magnonic-crystal waveguide structure for use as an efficient gigahertz-range spin-wave filter that passes only spin waves of chosen narrow band frequencies and filters out the other frequencies. The structure consists of the serial combinations of various width modulations with different periodicities and motifs in planar-patterned thin-film nanostrips composed of a single soft magnetic material. The observed magnonic band gaps result from both the translation symmetry of the one-dimensional width modulation and the higher-quantized width-mode spin waves excited from scattering at the periodic edge-steps of the width modulation. This work brings us one step closer to practical implementations of spin waves in information transmission and processing devices.open452

    Versatile Bifunctional and Supported IrNi Oxide Catalyst for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

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    Designing a high-performance electrocatalyst that operates with photon-level energy is of the utmost importance in order to address the world’s urgent energy concerns. Herein, we report IrNi nanoparticles uniformly distributed on cost-effective activated carbon support with a low mass loading of 3% by weight to drive the overall water splitting reaction under light illumination over a wide pH range. The prepared IrNi nanomaterials were extensively characterized by SEM/EDX, TEM, XRD, Raman, and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The experimental results demonstrate that when the Ir:Ni ratio is 4:1, the water splitting rate is high at 32 and 25 mA cm−2 for hydrogen (at −1.16 V) and oxygen evolution reactions (at 1.8 V) in alkaline electrolyte, respectively, upon the light irradiation (100 mW cm−2). The physical and electrochemical characterization of metal and alloy combinations show that the cumulative effect of relatively high crystallinity (among the materials used in this study), reduced charge recombination rate, and improved oxygen vacancies observed with the 4Ir1Ni@AC electrode is the reason for the superior activity obtained. A high level of durability for hydrogen and oxygen evolution under light illumination is seen in the chronoamperometric study over 15 h of operation. Overall water splitting examined in 0.1 M of NaOH medium at a 50 mV s−1 scan rate showed a cell voltage of 1.94 V at a 10 mA cm−2 current density.Qatar National Research Fund (QNRF) - Grant No. NPRP13S-0202-200228

    Massive Concha Bullosa with Secondary Maxillary Sinusitis

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    Concha bullosa is a common anatomic variation of the middle turbinate; however, sinusitis secondary to the concha bullosa is rare. A 52-yr-old woman presented with nasal obstruction and posterior nasal drip. Computed tomography and examination of the nasal cavity revealed septal deviation on the left side, and a massive concha bullosa and maxillary sinusitis on the right side. The lateral lamella of the affected turbinate was removed and the inspissated material was drained. Histopathologic examination of the excised lesion in the concha bullosa revealed bacterial colonies in the mucus plug. We report here on a massive concha bullosa with secondary maxillary sinusitis

    Electrocatalytic arsenite oxidation in bicarbonate solutions combined with CO₂ reduction to formate

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    Sunlight-driven water-energy nexus technologies are receiving increasing attention. This study presents a hybrid electrochemical system that catalyzes the oxidation of As(III) to As(V) with a nanoparticulate TiO₂ electrocatalyst (Ti/Ir_(1-x)Ta_xO_y/TiO₂; denoted as an n-TEC) while simultaneously converting CO₂ to formate on a Bi electrode in aqueous bicarbonate solutions at circum-neutral pH. Linear sweep voltammograms of n-TEC exhibit a specific As(III) oxidation peak (E_(p,As)), at which the Faradaic efficiency (FE) of As(V) production is ∼100%. However, the application of a potential higher than the peak (E > E_(p,As)) leads to a significant decrease in the FE due to water oxidation. Upon the addition of chloride, the oxidation of water and chloride occur competitively, producing reactive chlorine species responsible for mediating the oxidation of As(III). The Bi electrodes synthesized via the electrodeposition of Bi³⁺ typically show high FEs of >80% for formate production in bicarbonate solution purged with CO₂. The addition of chloride significantly enhances the current while maintaining the FE. The n-TEC catalyst and Bi electrodes are paired in a single device equipped with a membrane, and significant effort is made to achieve the same FEs in both the anodic and cathodic reactions as in their half-reactions. Finally, the optimized n-TEC/Bi pair is coupled with a low-cost, commercially available photovoltaic (PV). Various technical factors that drive the overall reactions with the PV are considered, and maximum FEs of ∼95% are achieved for the production of both As(V) and formate