3,916 research outputs found

    From New London to Norwood: A Year in the Life of Eminent Domain

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    A little more than a year after the U.S. Supreme Court\u27s decision in Kelo v. City of New London upheld the use of eminent domain for economic development, the Ohio Supreme Court became the first state supreme court to address a factual situation raising the same issues. In City of Norwood v. Horney, the Ohio court repudiated the Kelo rationale and rejected Norwood\u27s proposed takings. Property rights advocates quickly hailed Norwood as a model for other state courts to follow in defending individual land owners from eminent domain abuse. This Note argues that Norwood\u27s holding is incoherent and does nothing to resolve the language-based quagmire that inflames the eminent domain debate. This Note instead contends that the Connecticut Supreme Court\u27s more nuanced Kelo v. City of New London opinion is a superior state court model, which better captures the necessary balance between individual property rights and urban revitalization plans involving eminent domain

    Charge Offset Stability in Si Single Electron Devices with Al Gates

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    We report on the charge offset drift (time stability) in Si single electron devices (SEDs) defined with aluminum (Al) gates. The size of the charge offset drift (0.15 ee) is intermediate between that of Al/AlOx_x/Al tunnel junctions (greater than 1 ee) and Si SEDs defined with Si gates (0.01 ee). This range of values suggests that defects in the AlOx_x are the main cause of the charge offset drift instability

    Einstein Radii from Binary Lensing Events

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    We show that the Einstein ring radius and transverse speed of a lens projected on the source plane, r^e\hat{r}_{\rm e} and v^\hat{v}, can be determined from the light curve of a binary-source event, followed by the spectroscopic determination of the orbital elements of the source stars. The determination makes use of the same principle that allows one to measure the Einstein ring radii from finite-source effects. For the case when the orbital period of the source stars is much longer than the Einstein time scale, PteP\gg t_{\rm e}, there exists a single two-fold degeneracy in determining r^e\hat{r}_{\rm e}. However, when PteP \lesssim t_{\rm e} the degeneracy can often be broken by making use of the binary-source system's orbital motion. %Once r^e\hat{r}_{\rm e}, and thus v^\hat{v} are determined, one can %distinguish self-lensing events in the Large Magellanic Cloud %from Galactic halo events. For an identifiable 8\% of all lensing events seen toward the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), one can unambiguously determine whether the lenses are Galactic, or whether they lie in the LMC itself. The required observations can be made after the event is over and could be carried out for the 8\sim 8 events seen by Alcock et al.\ and Aubourg et al.. In addition, we propose to include eclipsing binaries as sources for gravitational lensing experiments.Comment: 18 pages, revised version, submitted to Ap

    Multiwavelength transit observations of the candidate disintegrating planetesimals orbiting WD 1145+017

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    We present multiwavelength, ground-based follow-up photometry of the white dwarf WD 1145+017, which has recently been suggested to be orbited by up to six or more short-period, low-mass, disintegrating planetesimals. We detect nine significant dips in flux of between 10% and 30% of the stellar flux in our ~32 hr of photometry, suggesting that WD 1145+017 is indeed being orbited by multiple, short-period objects. Through fits to the asymmetric transits that we observe, we confirm that the transit egress is usually longer than the ingress, and that the transit duration is longer than expected for a solid body at these short periods, all suggesting that these objects have cometary tails streaming behind them. The precise orbital periods of the planetesimals are unclear, but at least one object, and likely more, have orbital periods of ~4.5 hr. We are otherwise unable to confirm the specific periods that have been reported, bringing into question the long-term stability of these periods. Our high-precision photometry also displays low-amplitude variations, suggesting that dusty material is consistently passing in front of the white dwarf, either from discarded material from these disintegrating planetesimals or from the detected dusty debris disk. We compare the transit depths in the V- and R-bands of our multiwavelength photometry, and find no significant difference; therefore, for likely compositions, the radius of single-size particles in the cometary tails streaming behind the planetesimals must be ~0.15 μm or larger, or ~0.06 μm or smaller, with 2σ confidence

    STM studies of epitaxial graphene

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    This article reviews the use of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) to characterize the physical and electronic properties of epitaxial graphene. Topographical variations revealed by STM allow the determination of the number of graphene layers and the detection of lattice mismatch between the graphene and the substrate, as well as rotational disorder. STS allows the local electronic characterization of graphene. STM/STS can also be used to perform local studies of graphene modification through processes such as atomic/molecular adsorption and intercalation

    Methanesulfonate in the firn of King George Island, Antarctica

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    Methanesulfonate was investigated as a potential contributor to the sulfur budget, based on analysis of a firn core from Collins Ice Cap, King George Island, Antarctica (62°10\u27 S, 58°50\u27 W). The anion was found to be present at a mean concentration of 0.17 μeq L-1, with a maximum of 0.73 μeq L-1. Dating based on the δ18O profile suggests that the principal peaks of methanesulfonate are associated with snow deposited in summer and autumn. A careful examination of MSA, SO42-and nssSO42- profiles indicates that two of the three peaks in the MSA profile mayresult mainlyfrom migration and relocation of MSA. The mechanism responsible for this might be similar to that for deep cores from other Antarctic glaciers, supporting the migration hypothesis proposed by prior researchers and extending it to near-temperate ice. Due to the post-depositional modification, the main part of the MSA profile of the firn is no longer indicative of the seasonal pattern of MSA in the atmosphere, and the basis for calculation of the MSA/nssSO42- ratio should be changed. The MSA/nssSO42- ratio obtained bya new computation is 0.22, 10% higher than that ignoring the effect of MSA migration

    Multiwavelength Transit Observations of the Candidate Disintegrating Planetesimals Orbiting WD 1145+017

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    We present multiwavelength, multi-telescope, ground-based follow-up photometry of the white dwarf WD 1145+017, that has recently been suggested to be orbited by up to six or more, short-period, low-mass, disintegrating planetesimals. We detect 9 significant dips in flux of between 10% and 30% of the stellar flux from our ground-based photometry. We observe transits deeper than 10% on average every ~3.6 hr in our photometry. This suggests that WD 1145+017 is indeed being orbited by multiple, short-period objects. Through fits to the multiple asymmetric transits that we observe, we confirm that the transit egress timescale is usually longer than the ingress timescale, and that the transit duration is longer than expected for a solid body at these short periods, all suggesting that these objects have cometary tails streaming behind them. The precise orbital periods of the planetesimals in this system are unclear from the transit-times, but at least one object, and likely more, have orbital periods of ~4.5 hours. We are otherwise unable to confirm the specific periods that have been reported, bringing into question the long-term stability of these periods. Our high precision photometry also displays low amplitude variations suggesting that dusty material is consistently passing in front of the white dwarf, either from discarded material from these disintegrating planetesimals or from the detected dusty debris disk. For the significant transits we observe, we compare the transit depths in the V- and R-bands of our multiwavelength photometry, and find no significant difference; therefore, for likely compositions the radius of single-size particles in the cometary tails streaming behind the planetesimals in this system must be ~0.15 microns or larger, or ~0.06 microns or smaller, with 2-sigma confidence.Comment: 16 pages, 12 figures, submitted to ApJ on October 8th, 201
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