229 research outputs found

    On the explicit finite element formulation of the dynamic contact problem of hyperelastic membranes

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    Contact-impact problems involving finite deformation axisymmetric membranes are solved by the finite element method with explicit time integration. The formulation of the membrane element and the contact constraint conditions are discussed. The hyperelastic, compressible Blatz and Ko material is used to model the material properties of the membrane. Two example problems are presented

    Fluid structure interaction of submerged metallic and composite plates subjected to low velocity impact loading

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    An instrumented low velocity impact rig has been used to acquire experimental data for impacts in air and underwater for both metallic and composite plates when subjected to a low velocity drop-weight impact with a 2kg steel impactor. Initial impact studies were conducted in air and then repeated for submersed conditions underwater. Experimental results are compared for all tests with numerical solutions and are found to be in good agreement. For underwater impact, the numerical model incorporates the use of a Eulerian formulation for the water with a coupled fluid-structure interaction algorithm. The effect of the water surrounding the target plates was found to reduce the peak accelerations and also reduce the overall impact duration when compared to the same impacts in air. X-Ray imagery of the composite plates also showed visibly reduced damage for the submersed test specimens. This research provides data on the impact response of metallic and composite materials, and validates numerical methodologies for use in future work on fluid-structure interactions which show strong potential for relevant industrial applications

    Finite Element Studies of Transient Wave Propagation

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    The National Bureau of Standards (NBS) has been working to develop a nondestructive test method for heterogenous solids using transient stress waves [1-5]. The method is referred to as the impact-echo method. The technique involves introducing a transient stress pulse into a test object by mechanical impact at a point and measuring the surface displacement caused by the arrival of reflections of the pulse from internal defects and external boundaries. Successful signal interpretation requires an understanding of the nature of transient stress wave propagation in solids containing defects. A primary focus of the NBS program is on using the finite element method to gain this understanding.</p

    Design of a split Hopkinson pressure bar with partial lateral confinement

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    This paper presents the design of a modified split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) where partial lateral con- finement of the specimen is provided by the inertia of a fluid annulus contained in a long steel reservoir. In contrast to unconfined testing, or a constant cell pressure applied before axial loading, lateral restraint is permitted to develop throughout the axial loading: this enables the high-strain-rate shear behaviour of soils to be characterised under conditions which are more representative of buried explosive events. A pressure transducer located in the wall of the reservoir allows lateral stresses to be quantified, and a dispersion-correction technique is used to provide accurate measurements of axial stress and strain. Preliminary numerical modelling is utilised to inform the experimental design, and the capability of the apparatus is demonstrated with specimen results for a dry quartz sand

    Observations from Preliminary Experiments on Spatial and Temporal Pressure Measurements from Near-Field Free Air Explosions

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    It is self-evident that a crucial step in analysing the performance of protective structures is to be able to accurately quantify the blast load arising from a high explosive detonation. For structures located near to the source of a high explosive detonation, the resulting pressure is extremely high in magnitude and highly non-uniform over the face of the target. There exists very little direct measurement of blast parameters in the nearfield, mainly attributed to the lack of instrumentation sufficiently robust to survive extreme loading events yet sensitive enough to capture salient features of the blast. Instead literature guidance is informed largely by early numerical analyses and parametric studies. Furthermore, the lack of an accurate, reliable data set has prevented subsequent numerical analyses from being validated against experimental trials. This paper presents an experimental methodology that has been developed in part to enable such experimental data to be gathered. The experimental apparatus comprises an array of Hopkinson pressure bars, fitted through holes in a target, with the loaded faces of the bars flush with the target face. Thus, the bars are exposed to the normally or obliquely reflected shocks from the impingement of the blast wave with the target. Pressure-time recordings are presented along with associated Arbitary-Langrangian-Eulerian modelling using the LS-DYNA explicit numerical code. Experimental results are corrected for the effects of dispersion of the propagating waves in the pressure bars, enabling accurate characterisation of the peak pressures and impulses from these loadings. The combined results are used to make comments on the mechanism of the pressure load for very near-field blast events

    Highly functionalized organic nitrates in the southeast United States : Contribution to secondary organic aerosol and reactive nitrogen budgets

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    Speciated particle-phase organic nitrates (pONs) were quantified using online chemical ionization MS during June and July of 2013 in rural Alabama as part of the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study. A large fraction of pONs is highly functionalized, possessing between six and eight oxygen atoms within each carbon number group, and is not the common first generation alkyl nitrates previously reported. Using calibrations for isoprene hydroxynitrates and the measured molecular compositions, we estimate that pONs account for 3% and 8% of total submicrometer organic aerosol mass, on average, during the day and night, respectively. Each of the isoprene-and monoterpenes-derived groups exhibited a strong diel trend consistent with the emission patterns of likely biogenic hydrocarbon precursors. An observationally constrained diel box model can replicate the observed pON assuming that pONs (i) are produced in the gas phase and rapidly establish gas-particle equilibrium and (ii) have a short particle-phase lifetime (similar to 2-4 h). Such dynamic behavior has significant implications for the production and phase partitioning of pONs, organic aerosol mass, and reactive nitrogen speciation in a forested environment.Peer reviewe

    A Numerical Investigation of Blast Loading and Clearing on Small Targets

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    When a blast wave strikes a finite target, diffraction of the blast wave around the free edge causes a rarefaction clearing wave to propagate along the loaded face and relieve the pressure acting at any point it passes over. For small targets, the time taken for this clearing wave to traverse the loaded face will be small in relation to the duration of loading. Previous studies have not shown what happens in the late-time stages of clearing relief, nor the mechanism by which the cleared reflected pressure decays to approach the incident pressure. Current design guidance assumes a series of interacting clearing waves propagate over the target face - this assumption is tested in this article by using numerical analysis to evaluate the blast pressure acting on small targets subjected to blast loads. It is shown that repeat propagations of the rarefaction waves do not occur and new model is proposed, based on an over-expanded region of air in front of the loaded face of the target
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