1,027 research outputs found

    Diboson Production at D0

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    We present recent diboson production measurements from the D0 experiment at Fermilab's Tevatron collider. The production of ZZ was observed using leptonic final states. Zgamma->nunugamma was observed and used to set the most stringent limits from a hadron collider on anomalous Zgammagamma and ZZgamma trilinear gauge couplings (TGCs). WW events with leptonic final states and WW+WZ events with semi-leptonic final states were used to set limits on anomalous WWZ and WWgamma TGCs. Finally, limits on anomalous WWZ and WWgamma TGCs were obtained from a combination of the fully-leptonic Wgamma, WW, and WZ channels and the semi-leptonic WW and WZ channels, giving the most stringent limits from a hadron collider.Comment: Proceeding for the European Physical Society Europhysics Conference on High Energy Physics July 16-22, 2009 in Krakow, Polan

    The Leadership of Ernestine Rose 1848-1860

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    In my final project l will explore the leadership of Ernestine Rose in the context of contemporary transformational leadership theory. Although Rose was heavily involved in both woman\u27s rights and social reform activities during her entire thirty-three year residence in the United States, I will focus on her woman\u27s rights leadership initiatives between 1848-1860. I will define transformational leadership and examine how it relates to a historical figure like Rose. I will also describe the status of the woman\u27s rights movement and Rose\u27s leadership within it. Finally, l will explore the relationship between Rose\u27s leadership style and transformational leadership theory. Within this examination, I will pursue questions like how did Rose lead? What was her leadership style? What obstacles did she face? Finally, to what extent was Ernestine Rose a transformational leader

    Diboson production at D0

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    We present recent diboson production measurements from the D0 experiment at Fermilab’s Tevatron collider. The production of ZZ was observed using leptonic final states. Zγ → ννγ was observed and used to set the most stringent limits from a hadron collider on anomalous Zγγ and ZZγ trilinear gauge couplings (TGCs). WW events with leptonic final states and WW + WZ events with semi-leptonic final states were used to set limits on anomalous WWZ and WWγ TGCs. Finally, limits on anomalous WWZ and WWγ TGCs were obtained from a combination of the fully-leptonic Wγ , WW, and WZ channels and the semi-leptonic WW and WZ channels, giving the most stringent limits from a hadron collider.Physic

    POLYPHASIC ANALYSES ON THE NATURAL ECOLOGY OF HUMAN PATHOGENS

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    The focus of research concerning human pathogens has been primarily centered on virulence in the host, transmission between hosts, and treatment of the subsequent infections. Justifiably, our well-being relies on such research but it has erroneously resulted in the assumption that the role of these microbial pathogens is to infect and reproduce within or on our bodies and then pass to another human to follow this same cycle ad infinitum. Although this does represent a true optional lifestyle for many pathogens, it must be stated that this lifestyle is one of several life histories that a pathogen may follow and in many cases human infections represent a dead end. This study focuses on the natural ecology of several human pathogens, V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. metecus, and their associated virulence factors, in regions where they cause sporadic illness as well as a region where one of these pathogens, V. cholerae, has never caused a human illness. In this work we demonstrate the non-human environment as a natural ecosystem for several human pathogens as well as a reservoir of virulence factors. This was achieved by employing a combination of high-throughput whole genome analyses focused on the nucleotide and amino acid level, combined with broader ecological studies evaluating the role of the environment with respect to presence of the pathogens and expression of their virulence factors. This work further demonstrates the ubiquity of virulence factors in the environment and the expression of these factors at temperatures found outside of the human host suggests their utility in the environment

    Effect of previous handling experiences on responses of dairy calves to routine husbandry procedures

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    The nature of human–animal interactions is an important factor contributing to animal welfare and productivity. Reducing stress during routine husbandry procedures is likely to improve animal welfare. We examined how the type of early handling of calves affected responses to two common husbandry procedures, ear-tagging and disbudding. Forty Holstein–Friesian calves (n = 20/treatment) were exposed to one of two handling treatments daily from 1 to 5 weeks of age: (1) positive (n = 20), involving gentle handling (soft voices, slow movements, patting), and (2) negative (n = 20), involving rough handling (rough voices, rapid movements, pushing). Heart rate (HR), respiration rate (RR) and behaviour (activity, tail flicking) were measured before and after ear-tagging and disbudding (2 days apart). Cortisol was measured at −20 (baseline), 20 and 40 min relative to disbudding time. There were no significant treatment differences in HR, RR or behaviour in response to either procedure. However, the following changes occurred across both treatment groups. HR increased after disbudding (by 14.7 ± 4.0 and 18.6 ± 3.8 bpm, positive and negative, respectively; mean ± s.e.m.) and ear-tagging (by 8.7 ± 3.1 and 10.3 ± 3.0 bpm, positive and negative, respectively). After disbudding, there was an increase in RR (by 8.2 ± 3.4 and 9.3 ± 3.4 breaths/min, positive and negative, respectively), overall activity (by 9.4 ± 1.2 and 9.9 ± 1.3 frequency/min, positive and negative, respectively) and tail flicking (by 13.2 ± 2.8 and 11.2 ± 3.0 frequency/min, positive and negative, respectively), and cortisol increased from baseline at 20 min post procedure (by 10.3 ± 1.1 and 12.3 ± 1.1 nmol/l positive and negative, respectively). Although we recorded significant changes in calf responses during ear-tagging and disbudding, the type of prior handling had no effect on responses. The effects of handling may have been overridden by the degree of pain and/or stress associated with the procedures. Further research is warranted to understand the welfare impact and interaction between previous handling and responses to husbandry procedures

    APRIL:TACI axis is dispensable for the immune response to rabies vaccination.

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    There is significant need to develop a single-dose rabies vaccine to replace the current multi-dose rabies vaccine regimen and eliminate the requirement for rabies immune globulin in post-exposure settings. To accomplish this goal, rabies virus (RABV)-based vaccines must rapidly activate B cells to secrete antibodies which neutralize pathogenic RABV before it enters the CNS. Increased understanding of how B cells effectively respond to RABV-based vaccines may improve efforts to simplify post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) regimens. Several studies have successfully employed the TNF family cytokine a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) as a vaccine adjuvant. APRIL binds to the receptors TACI and B cell maturation antigen (BCMA)-expressed by B cells in various stages of maturation-with high affinity. We discovered that RABV-infected primary murine B cells upregulate APRIL ex vivo. Cytokines present at the time of antigen exposure affect the outcome of vaccination by influencing T and B cell activation and GC formation. Therefore, we hypothesized that the presence of APRIL at the time of RABV-based vaccine antigen exposure would support the generation of protective antibodies against RABV glycoprotein (G). In an effort to improve the response to RABV vaccination, we constructed and characterized a live recombinant RABV-based vaccine vector which expresses murine APRIL (rRABV-APRIL). Immunogenicity testing in mice demonstrated that expressing APRIL from the RABV genome does not impact the primary antibody response against RABV G compared to RABV alone. In order to evaluate the necessity of APRIL for the response to rabies vaccination, we compared the responses of APRIL-deficient and wild-type mice to immunization with rRABV. APRIL deficiency does not affect the primary antibody response to vaccination. Furthermore, APRIL expression by the vaccine did not improve the generation of long-lived antibody-secreting plasma cells (PCs) as serum antibody levels were equivalent in response to rRABV-APRIL and the vector eight weeks after immunization. Moreover, APRIL is dispensable for the long-lived antibody-secreting PC response to rRABV vaccination as anti-RABV G IgG levels were similar in APRIL-deficient and wild-type mice six months after vaccination. Mice lacking the APRIL receptor TACI demonstrated primary anti-RABV G antibody responses similar to wild-type mice following immunization with the vaccine vector indicating that this response is independent of TACI-mediated signals. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that APRIL and associated TACI signaling is dispensable for the immune response to RABV-based vaccination

    Employer Perceptions of Addiction Recovery and Hiring Decisions

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    Abstract Addiction to drugs and alcohol is a widespread, and ever-growing problem in American society today. Individuals who undergo treatment for their addiction often find it difficult to gain employment due to employers\u27 negative perceptions of addiction. Previous research has found that many employers have a stigma of those in addiction recovery. However, little research has been done to determine if these stigmas affect hiring decisions. Drug and alcohol misuse are prominent in the Appalachian area, which presents an issue for employers in the area who maintain a drug-free work place or who have a stigma of those in addiction recovery. The proposed study will assess employers’ attitudes towards applicants who have a history of substance misuse and/or are in treatment for substance misuse, with specific focus on self-reported likelihood of hiring an applicant who is in recovery. We hypothesize that employers will report a decreased likelihood of hiring individuals who are in recovery for substance misuse. Participants who are at least eighteen years of age and English-speaking will complete a survey on the REDCap web platform that includes a subset of questions from the Addiction Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (AABS). Items that will be used to assess employers’ attitudes were adapted from the Substance Use Stigma Mechanisms Scale (SU-SMS) and the Perceived Stigma Addiction Scale (PSAS). The proposed study is part of a larger study that is assessing attitudes and beliefs toward addiction among employers and within faith communities, as well as perceived stigmas experienced by those who are living with addiction or have a history of substance misuse, with particular emphasis on attitudes within the Appalachian Highlands community. Possible limitations of this proposed study include the lack of generalizability since employers in the Appalachian area may not be representative of the overall population. Another possible limitation is the use of self-report measures. Participants may not be willing to report accurately due to the sensitivity of the topic. If results of the proposed study support our hypothesis, further research should look at ways to reduce stigma and support employers in hiring those in addiction recovery. Existing research suggests that employment is vital for addiction treatment success and is associated with a decreased likelihood of relapse, making the need for the amelioration of this stigma imperative in dealing with the addiction crisis

    Indian Ocean Literature in the Shade of Bandung

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    “Indian Ocean Literature in the Shade of Bandung” examines novels, plays, and nonfiction by contemporary writers from the Indian Ocean rim and its diaspora who have a strong interest in the effects of neoliberal economic policies upon the postcolonial nation-state. Focusing upon the contemporary Anglophone literatures of India and Malaysia, I locate middle-class skepticism regarding the feasibility—or even desirability—of constructing a postcolonial national imaginary that would be founded upon the politics of decolonization. At the same time, I find that important contemporary writers–Tan Twan Eng, Huzir Sulaiman, Arundhati Roy, and Aravind Adiga—express a marked ambivalence toward the rapid globalization of their national homelands; they critique the growth of a transnational consumerism with political, material, and cultural ties to the west. Highlighting connections between the mediation of a literary marketplace and the cultural production of a comprador bourgeoisie, I argue, enables each of these authors to stage a double critique of neoliberalism and reactionary nationalism—the latter of which may feed upon discontent sown by neoliberal policies among the region’s most economically underdeveloped communities. Furthermore, each of these literary representations gestures toward a regional transnationalism that is oriented around the ideal geographies of the maritime Indian Ocean, which utopian inflection I trace to the Afro-Asian Conference held in Bandung, Indonesia in 1955. I therefore place this contemporary writing into conversation with that of literary precursors—including Abdullah Hussein, Anita Desai, and Salman Rushdie— who were more immediately concerned with the legacy of Third World Internationalism. In each case, I have been interested to know how works of contemporary fiction seek to capture the spirit of regional cooperation that marked Bandung, and how they employ it in the service of utopian imagination and ideology critique. Situating contemporary literature in relation to this earlier moment helps me to clarify role that Bandung continues to play in mediating a literary marketplace and local reading culture that are marked by the seductions and anxieties of global consumer culture. I conclude that these writers stage a recuperation of Bandung internationalism in an attempt to imagine a global middle-class—one that would be capable of enjoying the fruits of neoliberal economic development, while resisting the forms of political complicity that have historically marked the comprador bourgeoisie

    Geometric modelling of kink banding in laminated structures

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    An analytical model founded on geometric and potential energy principles for kink band deformation in laminated composite struts is presented. It is adapted from an earlier successful study for confined layered structures which was formulated to model kink band formation in the folding of geological layers. The principal aim is to explore the underlying mechanisms governing the kinking response of flat, laminated components comprising unidirectional composite laminae. A pilot parametric study suggests that the key features of the mechanical response are captured well and that quantitative comparisons with experiments presented in the literature are highly encouraging

    First evidence for WW and WZ diboson production with semi-leptonic decays at a Hadron Collider

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    Presented is a measurement of the simultaneous production of a W{sup {+-}} boson in association with a second weak boson (W{sup {+-}} or Z{sup 0}) in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. Events are consider with one electron or one muon, missing transverse energy, and at least two hadronic jets. The data were collected by the D0 detector in Run IIa of the Tevatron accelerator and correspond to 1.07 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity for each of the two channels (WW/WZ {yields} e{nu}q{bar q} and WW/WZ {yields} {mu}{nu}q{bar q}). The cross section for WW + WZ production is measured to be 20.2 {+-} 2.5(stat) {+-} 3.6(sys) {+-} 1.2(lum) pb with a Gaussian significance of 4.4 standard deviations above the background-only scenario. This measurement is consistent with the Standard Model prediction and represents the first direct evidence for WW and WZ production with semi-leptonic decays at a hadron collider
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