66 research outputs found

    Kathleen Hanna: An Investigation into Riot Grrrl

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    A zine on the third-wave feminist movement riot grrrl and one of its most prominent members, Kathleen Hanna

    Genetic aspects of congenital nephrotic syndrome : a consensus statement from the ERKNet-ESPN inherited glomerulopathy working group

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    Congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS) is a heterogeneous group of disorders presenting with massive proteinuria within the first 3 months of life almost inevitably leading to end-stage kidney disease. The Work Group for the European Reference Network for Kidney Diseases (ERKNet) and the European Society for Pediatric Nephrology (ESPN) has developed consensus statement on genetic aspects of CNS diagnosis and management. The presented expert opinion recommends genetic diagnostics as the key diagnostic test to be ordered already during the initial evaluation of the patient, discusses which phenotyping workup should be performed and presents known genotype-phenotype correlations.Peer reviewe

    Management of congenital nephrotic syndrome : consensus recommendations of the ERKNet-ESPN Working Group

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    Publisher Copyright: © 2021, The Author(s).Congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS) is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by nephrotic-range proteinuria, hypoalbuminaemia and oedema, which manifest in utero or during the first 3 months of life. The main cause of CNS is genetic defects in podocytes; however, it can also be caused, in rare cases, by congenital infections or maternal allo-immune disease. Management of CNS is very challenging because patients are prone to severe complications, such as haemodynamic compromise, infections, thromboses, impaired growth and kidney failure. In this consensus statement, experts from the European Reference Network for Kidney Diseases (ERKNet) and the European Society for Paediatric Nephrology (ESPN) summarize the current evidence and present recommendations for the management of CNS, including the use of renin–angiotensin system inhibitors, diuretics, anticoagulation and infection prophylaxis. Therapeutic management should be adapted to the clinical severity of the condition with the aim of maintaining intravascular euvolaemia and adequate nutrition, while preventing complications and preserving central and peripheral vessels. We do not recommend performing routine early nephrectomies but suggest that they are considered in patients with severe complications despite optimal conservative treatment, and before transplantation in patients with persisting nephrotic syndrome and/or a WT1-dominant pathogenic variant.Peer reviewe

    FGF23 and its role in X-linked hypophosphatemia-related morbidity

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    Background: X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is an inherited disease of phosphate metabolism in which inactivating mutations of the Phosphate Regulating Endopeptidase Homolog, X-Linked (PHEX) gene lead to local and systemic effects including impaired growth, rickets, osteomalacia, bone abnormalities, bone pain, spontaneous dental abscesses, hearing difficulties, enthesopathy, osteoarthritis, and muscular dysfunction. Patients with XLH present with elevated levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), which is thought to mediate many of the aforementioned manifestations of the disease. Elevated FGF23 has also been observed in many other diseases of hypophosphatemia, and a range of animal models have been developed to study these diseases, yet the role of FGF23 in the pathophysiology of XLH is incompletely understood. Methods: The role of FGF23 in the pathophysiology of XLH is here reviewed by describing what is known about phenotypes associated with various PHEX mutations, animal models of XLH, and non-nutritional diseases of hypophosphatemia, and by presenting molecular pathways that have been proposed to contribute to manifestations of XLH. Results: The pathophysiology of XLH is complex, involving a range of molecular pathways that variously contribute to different manifestations of the disease. Hypophosphatemia due to elevated FGF23 is the most obvious contributor, however localised fluctuations in tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), pyrophosphate, calcitriol and direct effects of FGF23 have been observed to be associated with certain manifestations. Conclusions: By describing what is known about these pathways, this review highlights key areas for future research that would contribute to the understanding and clinical treatment of non-nutritional diseases of hypophosphatemia, particularly XLH.Peer reviewe

    Post-authorisation safety study of burosumab use in paediatric, adolescent and adult patients with X-Linked hypophosphataemia : rationale and description

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    Background: X-linked hypophosphataemia (XLH) is a rare, inherited, phosphate-wasting disorder that elevates fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), causing renal phosphate-wasting and impaired active vitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D) synthesis. Disease characteristics include rickets, osteomalacia, odontomalacia, and short stature. Historically, treatment has been oral phosphate and 1,25(OH)(2)D supplements. However, these treatments do not correct the primary pathogenic mechanism or treat all symptoms and can be associated with adverse effects. Burosumab is a recombinant human immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody against FGF23, approved for treating XLH in several geographical regions, including Europe and Israel. Burosumab restores normal serum phosphate levels, minimising the clinical consequences of XLH. Safety data on long-term treatment with burosumab are lacking owing to the rarity of XLH. This post-authorisation safety study (PASS) aims to evaluate the safety outcomes in patients aged >1 year. Methods: The PASS is a 10-year retrospective and prospective cohort study utilising data from the International XLH Registry (NCT03193476), which includes standard diagnostic and monitoring practice data at participating centres. The PASS aims to evaluate frequency and severity of safety outcomes, frequency and outcomes of pregnancies in female patients, and safety outcomes in patients with mild to moderate kidney disease at baseline, in children, adolescents and adults treated with burosumab for XLH. It is expected that there will be at least 400 patients who will be administered burosumab. Results: Data collection started on 24 April 2019. The expected date of the final study report is 31 December 2028, with two interim reports. Conclusion: This PASS will provide data on the long-term safety of burosumab treatment for XLH patients and describe safety outcomes for patients receiving burosumab contrasted with those patients receiving other XLH treatments, to help inform the future management of XLH patients. The PASS will be the largest real-world safety study of burosumab.Peer reviewe

    The International X-Linked Hypophosphatemia (XLH) Registry:first interim analysis of baseline demographic, genetic and clinical data

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    Background: X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is a rare, hereditary, progressive, renal phosphate-wasting disorder characterized by a pathological increase in FGF23 concentration and activity. Due to its rarity, diagnosis may be delayed, which can adversely affect outcomes. As a chronic disease resulting in progressive accumulation of musculoskeletal manifestations, it is important to understand the natural history of XLH over the patient’s lifetime and the impact of drug treatments and other interventions. This multicentre, international patient registry (International XLH Registry) was established to address the paucity of these data. Here we present the findings of the first interim analysis of the registry.Results: The International XLH Registry was initiated in August 2017 and includes participants of all ages diagnosed with XLH, regardless of their treatment and management. At the database lock for this first interim analysis (29 March 2021), 579 participants had entered the registry before 30 November 2020 and are included in the analysis (360 children [62.2%], 217 adults [37.5%] and 2 whose ages were not recorded [0.3%]; 64.2% were female). Family history data were available for 319/345 (92.5%) children and 145/187 (77.5%) adults; 62.1% had biological parents affected by XLH. Genetic testing data were available for 341 (94.7%) children and 203 (93.5%) adults; 370/546 (67.8%) had genetic test results; 331/370 (89.5%) had a confirmed PHEX mutation. A notably longer time to diagnosis was observed in adults ≥ 50 years of age (mean [median] duration 9.4 [2.0] years) versus all adults (3.7 [0.1] years) and children (1.0 [0.2] years). Participants presented with normal weight, shorter length or height and elevated body mass index (approximately − 2 and + 2 Z-scores, respectively) versus the general population. Clinical histories were collected for 349 participants (239 children and 110 adults). General data trends for prevalence of bone, dental, renal and joint conditions in all participants were aligned with expectations for a typical population of people with XLH.Conclusion: The data collected within the International XLH Registry, the largest XLH registry to date, provide substantial information to address the paucity of natural history data, starting with demographic, family history, genetic testing, diagnosis, auxology and baseline data on clinical presentation.</p

    Statins but Not Aspirin Reduce Thrombotic Risk Assessed by Thrombin Generation in Diabetic Patients without Cardiovascular Events: The RATIONAL Trial

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    The systematic use of aspirin and statins in patients with diabetes and no previous cardiovascular events is controversial. We sought to assess the effects of aspirin and statins on the thrombotic risk assessed by thrombin generation (TG) among patients with type II diabetes mellitus and no previous cardiovascular events.Prospective, randomized, open, blinded to events evaluation, controlled, 2×2 factorial clinical trial including 30 patients randomly allocated to aspirin 100 mg/d, atorvastatin 40 mg/d, both or none. Outcome measurements included changes in TG levels after treatment (8 to 10 weeks), assessed by a calibrated automated thrombogram. At baseline all groups had similar clinical and biochemical profiles, including TG levels. There was no interaction between aspirin and atorvastatin. Atorvastatin significantly reduced TG measured as peak TG with saline (85.09±55.34 nmol vs 153.26±75.55 nmol for atorvastatin and control groups, respectively; p = 0.018). On the other hand, aspirin had no effect on TG (121.51±81.83 nmol vs 116.85±67.66 nmol, for aspirin and control groups, respectively; p = 0.716). The effects of treatments on measurements of TG using other agonists were consistent.While waiting for data from ongoing large clinical randomized trials to definitively outline the role of aspirin in primary prevention, our study shows that among diabetic patients without previous vascular events, statins but not aspirin reduce thrombotic risk assessed by TG.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00793754

    Assessment of coronary artery disease and calcified coronary plaque burden by computed tomography in patients with and without diabetes mellitus

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    Purpose: To compare the coronary atherosclerotic burden in patients with and without type-2 diabetes using CT Coronary Angiography (CTCA). Methods and Materials: 147 diabetic (mean age: 65 ± 10 years; male: 89) and 979 nondiabetic patients (mean age: 61 ± 13 years; male: 567) without a history of coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent CTCA. The per-patient number of diseased coronary segments was determined and each diseased segment was classified as showing obstructive lesion (luminal narrowing >50%) or not. Coronary calcium scoring (CCS) was assessed too. Results: Diabetics showed a higher number of diseased segments (4.1 ± 4.2 vs. 2.1 ± 3.0; p 400 (p < 0.001), obstructive CAD (37% vs. 18% of patients; p < 0.0001), and fewer normal coronary arteries (20% vs. 42%; p < 0.0001), as compared to nondiabetics. The percentage of patients with obstructive CAD paralleled increasing CCS in both groups. Diabetics with CCS ≤ 10 had a higher prevalence of coronary plaque (39.6% vs. 24.5%, p = 0.003) and obstructive CAD (12.5% vs. 3.8%, p = 0.01). Among patients with CCS ≤ 10 all diabetics with obstructive CAD had a zero CCS and one patient was asymptomatic. Conclusions: Diabetes was associated with higher coronary plaque burden. The present study demonstrates that the absence of coronary calcification does not exclude obstructive CAD especially in diabetics

    FGF4 Independent Derivation of Trophoblast Stem Cells from the Common Vole

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    The derivation of stable multipotent trophoblast stem (TS) cell lines from preimplantation, and early postimplantation mouse embryos has been reported previously. FGF4, and its receptor FGFR2, have been identified as embryonic signaling factors responsible for the maintenance of the undifferentiated state of multipotent TS cells. Here we report the derivation of stable TS-like cell lines from the vole M. rossiaemeridionalis, in the absence of FGF4 and heparin. Vole TS-like cells are similar to murine TS cells with respect to their morphology, transcription factor gene expression and differentiation in vitro into derivatives of the trophectoderm lineage, and with respect to their ability to invade and erode host tissues, forming haemorrhagic tumours after subcutaneous injection into nude mice. Moreover, vole TS-like cells carry an inactive paternal X chromosome, indicating that they have undergone imprinted X inactivation, which is characteristic of the trophoblast lineage. Our results indicate that an alternative signaling pathway may be responsible for the establishment and stable proliferation of vole TS-like cells
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