59 research outputs found

    Commuting Pauli Hamiltonians as maps between free modules

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    We study unfrustrated spin Hamiltonians that consist of commuting tensor products of Pauli matrices. Assuming translation-invariance, a family of Hamiltonians that belong to the same phase of matter is described by a map between modules over the translation-group algebra, so homological methods are applicable. In any dimension every point-like charge appears as a vertex of a fractal operator, and can be isolated with energy barrier at most logarithmic in the separation distance. For a topologically ordered system in three dimensions, there must exist a point-like nontrivial charge. A connection between the ground state degeneracy and the number of points on an algebraic set is discussed. Tools to handle local Clifford unitary transformations are given

    An invariant of topologically ordered states under local unitary transformations

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    For an anyon model in two spatial dimensions described by a modular tensor category, the topological S-matrix encodes the mutual braiding statistics, the quantum dimensions, and the fusion rules of anyons. It is nontrivial whether one can compute the S-matrix from a single ground state wave function. Here, we define a class of Hamiltonians consisting of local commuting projectors and an associated matrix that is invariant under local unitary transformations. We argue that the invariant is equivalent to the topological S-matrix. The definition does not require degeneracy of the ground state. We prove that the invariant depends on the state only, in the sense that it can be computed by any Hamiltonian in the class of which the state is a ground state. As a corollary, we prove that any local quantum circuit that connects two ground states of quantum double models (discrete gauge theories) with non-isomorphic abelian groups, must have depth that is at least linear in the system's diameter. As a tool for the proof, a manifestly Hamiltonian-independent notion of locally invisible operators is introduced. This gives a sufficient condition for a many-body state not to be generated from a product state by any small depth quantum circuit; this is a many-body entanglement witness.Comment: revtex 11pt, 43 pages, (v2) minor change (v3) ref. added. To appear in Commun. Math. Phy

    Codes and Protocols for Distilling TT, controlled-SS, and Toffoli Gates

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    We present several different codes and protocols to distill TT, controlled-SS, and Toffoli (or CCZCCZ) gates. One construction is based on codes that generalize the triorthogonal codes, allowing any of these gates to be induced at the logical level by transversal TT. We present a randomized construction of generalized triorthogonal codes obtaining an asymptotic distillation efficiency γ1\gamma\rightarrow 1. We also present a Reed-Muller based construction of these codes which obtains a worse γ\gamma but performs well at small sizes. Additionally, we present protocols based on checking the stabilizers of CCZCCZ magic states at the logical level by transversal gates applied to codes; these protocols generalize the protocols of 1703.07847. Several examples, including a Reed-Muller code for TT-to-Toffoli distillation, punctured Reed-Muller codes for TT-gate distillation, and some of the check based protocols, require a lower ratio of input gates to output gates than other known protocols at the given order of error correction for the given code size. In particular, we find a 512512 T-gate to 1010 Toffoli gate code with distance 88 as well as triorthogonal codes with parameters [[887,137,5]],[[912,112,6]],[[937,87,7]][[887,137,5]],[[912,112,6]],[[937,87,7]] with very low prefactors in front of the leading order error terms in those codes.Comment: 28 pages. (v2) fixed a part of the proof on random triorthogonal codes, added comments on Clifford circuits for Reed-Muller states (v3) minor chang

    Local stabilizer codes in three dimensions without string logical operators

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    We suggest concrete models for self-correcting quantum memory by reporting examples of local stabilizer codes in 3D that have no string logical operators. Previously known local stabilizer codes in 3D all have string-like logical operators, which make the codes non-self-correcting. We introduce a notion of "logical string segments" to avoid difficulties in defining one dimensional objects in discrete lattices. We prove that every string-like logical operator of our code can be deformed to a disjoint union of short segments, and each segment is in the stabilizer group. The code has surface-like logical operators whose partial implementation has unsatisfied stabilizers along its boundary.Comment: 18 pages, 12 figures; clarified intermidiate steps in the proo

    Invertible subalgebras

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    We introduce invertible subalgebras of local operator algebras on lattices. An invertible subalgebra is defined to be one such that every local operator can be locally expressed by elements of the inveritible subalgebra and those of the commutant. On a two-dimensional lattice, an invertible subalgebra hosts a chiral anyon theory by a commuting Hamiltonian, which is believed not to be possible on a full local operator algebra. We prove that the stable equivalence classes of DD-dimensional invertible subalgebras form an abelian group under tensor product, isomorphic to the group of all D+1D+1 dimensional QCA modulo blending equivalence and shifts. In an appendix, we consider a metric on the group of all QCA on infinite lattices and prove that the metric completion contains the time evolution by local Hamiltonians, which is only approximately locality-preserving. Our metric topology is strictly finer than the strong topology.Comment: 29 pages, 2 figure

    Localization from superselection rules in translation invariant systems

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    We study a translation invariant spin model in a three-dimensional regular lattice, called the cubic code model, in the presence of arbitrary extensive perturbations. Below a critical perturbation strength, we show that most states with finite energy are localized; the overwhelming majority of such states have energy concentrated around a finite number of defects, and remain so for a time that is near-exponential in the distance between the defects. This phenomenon is due to an emergent superselection rule and does not require any disorder. An extensive number of local integrals of motion for these finite energy sectors are identified as well. Our analysis extends more generally to systems with immobile topological excitations.Comment: 7.5+1pages, 2 figure