51 research outputs found

    Cross-disorder analysis of schizophrenia and 19 immune-mediated diseases identifies shared genetic risk.

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    Many immune diseases occur at different rates among people with schizophrenia compared to the general population. Here, we evaluated whether this phenomenon might be explained by shared genetic risk factors. We used data from large genome-wide association studies to compare the genetic architecture of schizophrenia to 19 immune diseases. First, we evaluated the association with schizophrenia of 581 variants previously reported to be associated with immune diseases at genome-wide significance. We identified five variants with potentially pleiotropic effects. While colocalization analyses were inconclusive, functional characterization of these variants provided the strongest evidence for a model in which genetic variation at rs1734907 modulates risk of schizophrenia and Crohn’s disease via altered methylation and expression of EPHB4—a gene whose protein product guides the migration of neuronal axons in the brain and the migration of lymphocytes towards infected cells in the immune system. Next, we investigated genome-wide sharing of common variants between schizophrenia and immune diseases using cross-trait LD score regression. Of the 11 immune diseases with available genome-wide summary statistics, we observed genetic correlation between six immune diseases and schizophrenia: inflammatory bowel disease (rg = 0.12 ± 0.03, P = 2.49 × 10−4), Crohn’s disease (rg = 0.097 ± 0.06, P = 3.27 × 10−3), ulcerative colitis (rg = 0.11 ± 0.04, P = 4.05 × 10–3), primary biliary cirrhosis (rg = 0.13 ± 0.05, P = 3.98 × 10−3), psoriasis (rg = 0.18 ± 0.07, P = 7.78 × 10–3) and systemic lupus erythematosus (rg = 0.13 ± 0.05, P = 3.76 × 10–3). With the exception of ulcerative colitis, the degree and direction of these genetic correlations were consistent with the expected phenotypic correlation based on epidemiological data. Our findings suggest shared genetic risk factors contribute to the epidemiological association of certain immune diseases and schizophrenia.This research was supported in part by a number of funding sources. This research uses resources provided by the Genetic Association Information Network (GAIN), obtained from the database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP) found at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gap through dbGaP accession number phs000021.v3.p2; samples and associated phenotype data for this study were provided by the Molecular Genetics of Schizophrenia Collaboration (PI: Pablo V. Gejman, Evanston Northwestern Healthcare and Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA). Fulbright Canada, the Weston Foundation, and Brain Canada through the Canada Brain Research Fund—a public-private partnership established by the Government of Canada (to J.G.P.); the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) [grant 2016R1C1B2013126 to B.H.] and the Bio & Medical Technology Development Program of the NRF [grant 2017M3A9B6061852 to B.H.] funded by the Korean government, Ministry of Science and ICT; the Finnish Cultural Foundation and Academy of Finland [grant 309643 to H.M.O.]; the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness and P12-BIO-1395 from Consejería de Innovación, Ciencia y Tecnología, Junta de Andalucía (Spain) [grant SAF2015-66761-P to J.M.]; the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) [grants R01AR045584, R01AR056292, X01HG007484 and P30AR057212 to Y.J., S.A.S. and R.S.]; the US NIH [grants N01AR02251 and R01AR05528 to M.D.M.]; the US NIH [grants 1R01AR063759, 1R01AR062886, 1UH2AR067677-01 and U19AI111224-01 to S.R.] and Doris Duke Charitable Foundation [grant 2013097 to S.R.]. Funding for the GAIN schizophrenia sample was provided by the US NIH [grants R01 MH67257, R01 MH59588, R01 MH59571, R01 MH59565, R01 MH59587, R01 MH60870, R01 MH59566, R01 MH59586, R01 MH61675, R01 MH60879, R01 MH81800, U01 MH46276, U01 MH46289, U01 MH46318, U01 MH79469 and U01 MH79470] and the genotyping of samples was provided through GAIN. The funding sources did not influence the study design, data analysis or writing of this manuscript

    Genome-wide linkage analysis of 972 bipolar pedigrees using single-nucleotide polymorphisms.

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    Because of the high costs associated with ascertainment of families, most linkage studies of Bipolar I disorder (BPI) have used relatively small samples. Moreover, the genetic information content reported in most studies has been less than 0.6. Although microsatellite markers spaced every 10 cM typically extract most of the genetic information content for larger multiplex families, they can be less informative for smaller pedigrees especially for affected sib pair kindreds. For these reasons we collaborated to pool family resources and carried out higher density genotyping. Approximately 1100 pedigrees of European ancestry were initially selected for study and were genotyped by the Center for Inherited Disease Research using the Illumina Linkage Panel 12 set of 6090 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Of the ~1100 families, 972 were informative for further analyses, and mean information content was 0.86 after pruning for linkage disequilibrium. The 972 kindreds include 2284 cases of BPI disorder, 498 individuals with bipolar II disorder (BPII) and 702 subjects with recurrent major depression. Three affection status models (ASMs) were considered: ASM1 (BPI and schizoaffective disorder, BP cases (SABP) only), ASM2 (ASM1 cases plus BPII) and ASM3 (ASM2 cases plus recurrent major depression). Both parametric and non-parametric linkage methods were carried out. The strongest findings occurred at 6q21 (non-parametric pairs LOD 3.4 for rs1046943 at 119 cM) and 9q21 (non-parametric pairs logarithm of odds (LOD) 3.4 for rs722642 at 78 cM) using only BPI and schizoaffective (SA), BP cases. Both results met genome-wide significant criteria, although neither was significant after correction for multiple analyses. We also inspected parametric scores for the larger multiplex families to identify possible rare susceptibility loci. In this analysis, we observed 59 parametric LODs of 2 or greater, many of which are likely to be close to maximum possible scores. Although some linkage findings may be false positives, the results could help prioritize the search for rare variants using whole exome or genome sequencing

    Hepatic Transcriptome Analysis of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Chimpanzees Defines Unique Gene Expression Patterns Associated with Viral Clearance

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    Hepatitis C virus infection leads to a high rate of chronicity. Mechanisms of viral clearance and persistence are still poorly understood. In this study, hepatic gene expression analysis was performed to identify any molecular signature associated with the outcome of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in chimpanzees. Acutely HCV-infected chimpanzees with self-limited infection or progression to chronicity were studied. Interferon stimulated genes were induced irrespective of the outcome of infection. Early induction of a set of genes associated with cell proliferation and immune activation was associated with subsequent viral clearance. Specifically, two of the genes: interleukin binding factor 3 (ILF3) and cytotoxic granule-associated RNA binding protein (TIA1), associated with robust T-cell response, were highly induced early in chimpanzees with self-limited infection. Up-regulation of genes associated with CD8+ T cell response was evident only during the clearance phase of the acute self-limited infection. The induction of these genes may represent an initial response of cellular injury and proliferation that successfully translates to a “danger signal” leading to induction of adaptive immunity to control viral infection. This primary difference in hepatic gene expression between self-limited and chronic infections supports the concept that successful activation of HCV-specific T-cell response is critical in clearance of acute HCV infection

    The impact of Mendelian sleep and circadian genetic variants in a population setting.

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    This is the final version. Available from Public Library of Science via the DOI in this record. Data cannot be shared publicly because of data availability and data return policies of the UK Biobank. Data are available from the UK Biobank for researchers who meet the criteria for access to datasets to UK Biobank (http://www.ukbiobank.ac.uk)Rare variants in ten genes have been reported to cause Mendelian sleep conditions characterised by extreme sleep duration or timing. These include familial natural short sleep (ADRB1, DEC2/BHLHE41, GRM1 and NPSR1), advanced sleep phase (PER2, PER3, CRY2, CSNK1D and TIMELESS) and delayed sleep phase (CRY1). The association of variants in these genes with extreme sleep conditions were usually based on clinically ascertained families, and their effects when identified in the population are unknown. We aimed to determine the effects of these variants on sleep traits in large population-based cohorts. We performed genetic association analysis of variants previously reported to be causal for Mendelian sleep and circadian conditions. Analyses were performed using 191,929 individuals with data on sleep and whole-exome or genome-sequence data from 4 population-based studies: UK Biobank, FINRISK, Health-2000-2001, and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). We identified sleep disorders from self-report, hospital and primary care data. We estimated sleep duration and timing measures from self-report and accelerometery data. We identified carriers for 10 out of 12 previously reported pathogenic variants for 8 of the 10 genes. They ranged in frequency from 1 individual with the variant in CSNK1D to 1,574 individuals with a reported variant in the PER3 gene in the UK Biobank. No carriers for variants reported in NPSR1 or PER2 were identified. We found no association between variants analyzed and extreme sleep or circadian phenotypes. Using sleep timing as a proxy measure for sleep phase, only PER3 and CRY1 variants demonstrated association with earlier and later sleep timing, respectively; however, the magnitude of effect was smaller than previously reported (sleep midpoint ~7 mins earlier and ~5 mins later, respectively). We also performed burden tests of protein truncating (PTVs) or rare missense variants for the 10 genes. Only PTVs in PER2 and PER3 were associated with a relevant trait (for example, 64 individuals with a PTV in PER2 had an odds ratio of 4.4 for being "definitely a morning person", P = 4x10-8; and had a 57-minute earlier midpoint sleep, P = 5x10-7). Our results indicate that previously reported variants for Mendelian sleep and circadian conditions are often not highly penetrant when ascertained incidentally from the general population.Medical Research CouncilAcademy of Medical Sciences / the Wellcome Trust / the Government Department of Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy / the British Heart Foundation / Diabetes UK Springboard AwardMedical Research Counci

    Genome-wide association analysis of self-reported daytime sleepiness identifies 42 loci that suggest biological subtypes

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    This is the final version. Available from the publisher via the DOI in this record.UK Biobank Sleep Traits GWAS summary statistics are available at the Sleep Disorder Knowledge Portal (SDKP) website (http://www.sleepdisordergenetics.org). All other data are contained within the article and its supplementary information or available upon request.Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) affects 10–20% of the population and is associated with substantial functional deficits. Here, we identify 42 loci for self-reported daytime sleepiness in GWAS of 452,071 individuals from the UK Biobank, with enrichment for genes expressed in brain tissues and in neuronal transmission pathways. We confirm the aggregate effect of a genetic risk score of 42 SNPs on daytime sleepiness in independent Scandinavian cohorts and on other sleep disorders (restless legs syndrome, insomnia) and sleep traits (duration, chronotype, accelerometer-derived sleep efficiency and daytime naps or inactivity). However, individual daytime sleepiness signals vary in their associations with objective short vs long sleep, and with markers of sleep continuity. The 42 sleepiness variants primarily cluster into two predominant composite biological subtypes - sleep propensity and sleep fragmentation. Shared genetic links are also seen with obesity, coronary heart disease, psychiatric diseases, cognitive traits and reproductive ageing.Medical Research Council (MRC

    The association between genetic variants in hMLH1 and hMSH2 and the development of sporadic colorectal cancer in the Danish population

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Mutations in the mismatch repair genes <it>hMLH1 </it>and <it>hMSH2 </it>predispose to hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Genetic screening of more than 350 Danish patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) has led to the identification of several new genetic variants (e.g. missense, silent and non-coding) in <it>hMLH1 </it>and <it>hMSH2</it>. The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of these variants in <it>hMLH1 </it>and <it>hMSH2 </it>in Danish patients with sporadic colorectal cancer and in the healthy background population. The purpose was to reveal if any of the common variants lead to increased susceptibility to colorectal cancer.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Associations between genetic variants in <it>hMLH1 </it>and <it>hMSH2 </it>and sporadic colorectal cancer were evaluated using a case-cohort design. The genotyping was performed on DNA isolated from blood from the 380 cases with sporadic colorectal cancer and a sub-cohort of 770 individuals. The DNA samples were analyzed using Single Base Extension (SBE) Tag-arrays. A Bonferroni corrected Fisher exact test was used to test for association between the genotypes of each variant and colorectal cancer. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) was investigated using HaploView (v3.31).</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Heterozygous and homozygous changes were detected in 13 of 35 analyzed variants. Two variants showed a borderline association with colorectal cancer, whereas the remaining variants demonstrated no association. Furthermore, the genomic regions covering <it>hMLH1 </it>and <it>hMSH2 </it>displayed high linkage disequilibrium in the Danish population. Twenty-two variants were neither detected in the cases with sporadic colorectal cancer nor in the sub-cohort. Some of these rare variants have been classified either as pathogenic mutations or as neutral variants in other populations and some are unclassified Danish variants.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>None of the variants in <it>hMLH1 </it>and <it>hMSH2 </it>analyzed in the present study were highly associated with colorectal cancer in the Danish population. High linkage disequilibrium in the genomic regions covering <it>hMLH1 </it>and <it>hMSH2</it>, indicate that common genetic variants in the two genes in general are not involved in the development of sporadic colorectal cancer. Nevertheless, some of the rare unclassified variants in <it>hMLH1 </it>and <it>hMSH2 </it>might be involved in the development of colorectal cancer in the families where they were originally identified.</p

    Genetic determinants of daytime napping and effects on cardiometabolic health

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    This is the final version. Available from Nature Research via the DOI in this record. Summary GWAS statistics are publicly available at The Sleep Disorder Knowledge Portal webpage: http://sleepdisordergenetics.org/.Daytime napping is a common, heritable behavior, but its genetic basis and causal relationship with cardiometabolic health remain unclear. Here, we perform a genome-wide association study of self-reported daytime napping in the UK Biobank (n = 452,633) and identify 123 loci of which 61 replicate in the 23andMe research cohort (n = 541,333). Findings include missense variants in established drug targets for sleep disorders (HCRTR1, HCRTR2), genes with roles in arousal (TRPC6, PNOC), and genes suggesting an obesity-hypersomnolence pathway (PNOC, PATJ). Association signals are concordant with accelerometer-measured daytime inactivity duration and 33 loci colocalize with loci for other sleep phenotypes. Cluster analysis identifies three distinct clusters of nap-promoting mechanisms with heterogeneous associations with cardiometabolic outcomes. Mendelian randomization shows potential causal links between more frequent daytime napping and higher blood pressure and waist circumference.National Institute of HealthNational Institute of HealthNational Institute of HealthNational Institute of HealthNational Institute of HealthMGH Research Scholar Fund, Academy of FinlandMedical Research CouncilSpanish Government of Investigation, Development and InnovationSeneca FoundationNIDDKInstrumentarium Science FoundationYrjö Jahnsson Foundatio

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