1,882 research outputs found

### Reduced Joule heating in nanowires

The temperature distribution in nanowires due to Joule heating is studied
analytically using a continuum model and a Green's function approach. We show
that the temperatures reached in nanowires can be much lower than that
predicted by bulk models of Joule heating, due to heat loss at the nanowire
surface that is important at nanoscopic dimensions, even when the thermal
conductivity of the environment is relatively low. In addition, we find that
the maximum temperature in the nanowire scales weakly with length, in contrast
to the bulk system. A simple criterion is presented to assess the importance of
these effects. The results have implications for the experimental measurements
of nanowire thermal properties, for thermoelectric applications, and for
controlling thermal effects in nanowire electronic devices.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures. To appear in Applied Physics Letter

### Cylindrical-wave diffraction by a rational wedge

In this paper, new expressions for the field produced by the diffraction of a cylindrical wave by a wedge, whose angle can be expressed as a rational multiple of π are given. The solutions are expressed in terms of source terms and real integrals that represent the diffracted field. The general result obtained includes as special cases, Macdonald's solution for diffraction by a half plane, a solution for Carslaw's problem of diffraction by a wedge of open angle 2π\3, and a new representation for the solution of the problem of diffraction by a mixed soft-hard half plane

### A kinetic Ising model study of dynamical correlations in confined fluids: Emergence of both fast and slow time scales

Experiments and computer simulation studies have revealed existence of rich
dynamics in the orientational relaxation of molecules in confined systems such
as water in reverse micelles, cyclodextrin cavities and nano-tubes. Here we
introduce a novel finite length one dimensional Ising model to investigate the
propagation and the annihilation of dynamical correlations in finite systems
and to understand the intriguing shortening of the orientational relaxation
time that has been reported for small sized reverse micelles. In our finite
sized model, the two spins at the two end cells are oriented in the opposite
directions, to mimic the effects of surface that in real system fixes water
orientation in the opposite directions. This produces opposite polarizations to
propagate inside from the surface and to produce bulk-like condition at the
centre. This model can be solved analytically for short chains. For long chains
we solve the model numerically with Glauber spin flip dynamics (and also with
Metropolis single-spin flip Monte Carlo algorithm). We show that model nicely
reproduces many of the features observed in experiments. Due to the destructive
interference among correlations that propagate from the surface to the core,
one of the rotational relaxation time components decays faster than the bulk.
In general, the relaxation of spins is non-exponential due to the interplay
between various interactions. In the limit of strong coupling between the spins
or in the limit of low temperature, the nature of relaxation of the spins
undergoes a qualitative change with the emergence of a homogeneous dynamics
where decay is predominantly exponential, again in agreement with experiments.Comment: 27 pages, 8 figure

### Narrow-escape times for diffusion in microdomains with a particle-surface affinity: Mean-field results

We analyze the mean time t_{app} that a randomly moving particle spends in a
bounded domain (sphere) before it escapes through a small window in the
domain's boundary. A particle is assumed to diffuse freely in the bulk until it
approaches the surface of the domain where it becomes weakly adsorbed, and then
wanders diffusively along the boundary for a random time until it desorbs back
to the bulk, and etc. Using a mean-field approximation, we define t_{app}
analytically as a function of the bulk and surface diffusion coefficients, the
mean time it spends in the bulk between two consecutive arrivals to the surface
and the mean time it wanders on the surface within a single round of the
surface diffusion.Comment: 8 pages, 1 figure, submitted to JC

### Single-Species Three-Particle Reactions in One Dimension

Renormalization group calculations for fluctuation-dominated
reaction-diffusion systems are generally in agreement with simulations and
exact solutions. However, simulations of the single-species reactions
3A->(0,A,2A) at their upper critical dimension d_c=1 have found asymptotic
densities argued to be inconsistent with renormalization group predictions. We
show that this discrepancy is resolved by inclusion of the leading corrections
to scaling, which we derive explicitly and show to be universal, a property not
shared by the A+A->(0,A) reactions. Finally, we demonstrate that two previous
Smoluchowski approaches to this problem reduce, with various corrections, to a
single theory which yields, surprisingly, the same asymptotic density as the
renormalization group.Comment: 8 pages, 5 figs, minor correction

### Enhancement of marine cloud albedo via controlled sea spray injections: a global model study of the influence of emission rates, microphysics and transport

Modification of cloud albedo by controlled emission of sea spray particles into the atmosphere has been suggested as a possible geoengineering option to slow global warming. Previous global studies have imposed changes in cloud drop concentration in low level clouds to explore the radiative and climatic effects. Here, we use a global aerosol transport model to quantify how an imposed flux of sea spray particles affects the natural aerosol processes, the particle size distribution, and concentrations of cloud drops. We assume that the proposed fleet of vessels emits sea spray particles with a wind speed-dependent flux into four regions of persistent stratocumulus cloud off the western coasts of continents. The model results show that fractional changes in cloud drop number concentration (CDNC) vary substantially between the four regions because of differences in wind speed (which affects the spray efficiency of the vessels), transport and particle deposition rates, and because of variations in aerosols from natural and anthropogenic sources. Using spray emission rates comparable to those implied by previous studies we find that the predicted CDNC changes are very small (maximum 20%) and in one of the four regions even negative. The weak or negative effect is because the added particles suppress the in-cloud supersaturation and prevent existing aerosol particles from forming cloud drops. A scenario with five times higher emissions (considerably higher than previously assumed) increases CDNC on average by 45–163%, but median concentrations are still below the 375 cm<sup>&minus;3</sup> assumed in previous studies. An inadvertent effect of the spray emissions is that sulphur dioxide concentrations are suppressed by 1–2% in the seeded regions and sulphuric acid vapour by 64–68% due to chemical reactions on the additional salt particles. The impact of this suppression on existing aerosol is negligible in the model, but should be investigated further in the real environment so that inadvertent impacts can be excluded

### Fourier mode dynamics for the nonlinear Schroedinger equation in one-dimensional bounded domains

We analyze the 1D focusing nonlinear Schr\"{o}dinger equation in a finite
interval with homogeneous Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions. There are
two main dynamics, the collapse which is very fast and a slow cascade of
Fourier modes. For the cubic nonlinearity the calculations show no long term
energy exchange between Fourier modes as opposed to higher nonlinearities. This
slow dynamics is explained by fairly simple amplitude equations for the
resonant Fourier modes. Their solutions are well behaved so filtering high
frequencies prevents collapse. Finally these equations elucidate the unique
role of the zero mode for the Neumann boundary conditions

### Reaction-Diffusion Process Driven by a Localized Source: First Passage Properties

We study a reaction-diffusion process that involves two species of atoms,
immobile and diffusing. We assume that initially only immobile atoms, uniformly
distributed throughout the entire space, are present. Diffusing atoms are
injected at the origin by a source which is turned on at time t=0. When a
diffusing atom collides with an immobile atom, the two atoms form an immobile
stable molecule. The region occupied by molecules is asymptotically spherical
with radius growing as t^{1/d} in d>=2 dimensions. We investigate the survival
probability that a diffusing atom has not become a part of a molecule during
the time interval t after its injection and the probability density of such a
particle. We show that asymptotically the survival probability (i) saturates in
one dimension, (ii) vanishes algebraically with time in two dimensions (with
exponent being a function of the dimensionless flux and determined as a zero of
a confluent hypergeometric function), and (iii) exhibits a stretched
exponential decay in three dimensions.Comment: 7 pages; version 2: section IV is re-written, references added, 8
pages (final version

### Designing arrays of Josephson junctions for specific static responses

We consider the inverse problem of designing an array of superconducting
Josephson junctions that has a given maximum static current pattern as function
of the applied magnetic field. Such devices are used for magnetometry and as
Terahertz oscillators. The model is a 2D semilinear elliptic operator with
Neuman boundary conditions so the direct problem is difficult to solve because
of the multiplicity of solutions. For an array of small junctions in a passive
region, the model can be reduced to a 1D linear partial differential equation
with Dirac distribution sine nonlinearities. For small junctions and a
symmetric device, the maximum current is the absolute value of a cosine Fourier
series whose coefficients (resp. frequencies) are proportional to the areas
(resp. the positions) of the junctions. The inverse problem is solved by
inverse cosine Fourier transform after choosing the area of the central
junction. We show several examples using combinations of simple three junction
circuits. These new devices could then be tailored to meet specific
applications.Comment: The article was submitted to Inverse Problem

### Comment on Photothermal radiometry parametric identifiability theory for reliable and unique nondestructive coating thickness and thermophysical measurements, J. Appl. Phys. 121(9), 095101 (2017)

A recent paper [X. Guo, A. Mandelis, J. Tolev and K. Tang, J. Appl. Phys.,
121, 095101 (2017)] intends to demonstrate that from the photothermal
radiometry signal obtained on a coated opaque sample in 1D transfer, one should
be able to identify separately the following three parameters of the coating:
thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity and thickness. In this comment, it is
shown that the three parameters are correlated in the considered experimental
arrangement, the identifiability criterion is in error and the thickness
inferred therefrom is not trustable.Comment: 3 page

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