1,666 research outputs found

    (Average-) convexity of common pool and oligopoly TU-games

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    The paper studies both the convexity and average-convexity properties for a particular class of cooperative TU-games called common pool games. The common pool situation involves a cost function as well as a (weakly decreasing) average joint production function. Firstly, it is shown that, if the relevant cost function is a linear function, then the common pool games are convex games. The convexity, however, fails whenever cost functions are arbitrary. We present sufficient conditions involving the cost functions (like weakly decreasing marginal costs as well as weakly decreasing average costs) and the average joint production function in order to guarantee the convexity of the common pool game. A similar approach is effective to investigate a relaxation of the convexity property known as the average-convexity property for a cooperative game. An example illustrates that oligopoly games are a special case of common pool games whenever the average joint production function represents an inverse demand function

    Ratio control in a cascade model of cell differentiation

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    We propose a kind of reaction-diffusion equations for cell differentiation, which exhibits the Turing instability. If the diffusivity of some variables is set to be infinity, we get coupled competitive reaction-diffusion equations with a global feedback term. The size ratio of each cell type is controlled by a system parameter in the model. Finally, we extend the model to a cascade model of cell differentiation. A hierarchical spatial structure appears as a result of the cell differentiation. The size ratio of each cell type is also controlled by the system parameter.Comment: 13 pages, 7 figure

    Predicting Axonal Response to Molecular Gradients with a Computational Model of Filopodial Dynamics

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    Axons are often guided to their targets in the developing nervous system by attractive or repulsive molecular concentration gradients. We propose a computational model for gradient sensing and directed movement of the growth cone mediated by filopodia. We show that relatively simple mechanisms are sufficient to generate realistic rajectories for both the short-term response of axons to steep gradients and the long-term response of axons to shallow gradients. The model makes testable predictions for axonal response to attractive and repulsive gradients of different concentrations and steepness, the size of the intracellular amplification of the gradient signal, and the differences in intracellular signaling required for repulsive versus attractive turning

    Curvature Dependent Diffusion Flow on Surface with Thickness

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    Particle diffusion in a two dimensional curved surface embedded in R3R_3 is considered. In addition to the usual diffusion flow, we find a new flow with an explicit curvature dependence. New diffusion equation is obtained in ϵ\epsilon (thickness of surface) expansion. As an example, the surface of elliptic cylinder is considered, and curvature dependent diffusion coefficient is calculated.Comment: 8 pages, 8 figures, Late

    Turing's model for biological pattern formation and the robustness problem

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    One of the fundamental questions in developmental biology is how the vast range of pattern and structure we observe in nature emerges from an almost uniformly homogeneous fertilized egg. In particular, the mechanisms by which biological systems maintain robustness, despite being subject to numerous sources of noise, are shrouded in mystery. Postulating plausible theoretical models of biological heterogeneity is not only difficult, but it is also further complicated by the problem of generating robustness, i.e. once we can generate a pattern, how do we ensure that this pattern is consistently reproducible in the face of perturbations to the domain, reaction time scale, boundary conditions and so forth. In this paper, not only do we review the basic properties of Turing's theory, we highlight the successes and pitfalls of using it as a model for biological systems, and discuss emerging developments in the area

    Stability of spikes in the shadow Gierer-Meinhardt system with Robin boundary conditions

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    We consider the shadow system of the Gierer-Meinhardt system in a smooth bounded domain RN,At=2A−A+,x, t>0, ||t=−||+Ardx, t>0 with the Robin boundary condition +aAA=0, x, where aA>0, the reaction rates (p,q,r,s) satisfy 1<p<()+, q>0, r>0, s0, 1<<+, the diffusion constant is chosen such that 1, and the time relaxation constant is such that 0. We rigorously prove the following results on the stability of one-spike solutions: (i) If r=2 and 1<p<1+4/N or if r=p+1 and 1<p<, then for aA>1 and sufficiently small the interior spike is stable. (ii) For N=1 if r=2 and 1<p3 or if r=p+1 and 1<p<, then for 0<aA<1 the near-boundary spike is stable. (iii) For N=1 if 3<p<5 and r=2, then there exist a0(0,1) and µ0>1 such that for a(a0,1) and µ=2q/(s+1)(p−1)(1,µ0) the near-boundary spike solution is unstable. This instability is not present for the Neumann boundary condition but only arises for the Robin boundary condition. Furthermore, we show that the corresponding eigenvalue is of order O(1) as 0. ©2007 American Institute of Physic

    Morphogen Transport in Epithelia

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    We present a general theoretical framework to discuss mechanisms of morphogen transport and gradient formation in a cell layer. Trafficking events on the cellular scale lead to transport on larger scales. We discuss in particular the case of transcytosis where morphogens undergo repeated rounds of internalization into cells and recycling. Based on a description on the cellular scale, we derive effective nonlinear transport equations in one and two dimensions which are valid on larger scales. We derive analytic expressions for the concentration dependence of the effective diffusion coefficient and the effective degradation rate. We discuss the effects of a directional bias on morphogen transport and those of the coupling of the morphogen and receptor kinetics. Furthermore, we discuss general properties of cellular transport processes such as the robustness of gradients and relate our results to recent experiments on the morphogen Decapentaplegic (Dpp) that acts in the fruit fly Drosophila

    Helical Turing patterns in the Lengyel-Epstein model in thin cylindrical layers

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    The formation of Turing patterns was investigated in thin cylindrical layers using the Lengyel-Epstein model of the chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction. The influence of the width of the layer W and the diameter D of the inner cylinder on the pattern with intrinsic wavelength l were determined in simulations with initial random noise perturbations to the uniform state for W< l/2 and D l or lower. We show that the geometric constraints of the reaction domain may result in the formation of helical Turing patterns with parameters that give stripes (b ¼ 0.2) or spots (b ¼ 0.37) in two dimensions. For b ¼ 0.2, the helices were composed of lamellae and defects were likely as the diameter of the cylinder increased. With b ¼ 0.37, the helices consisted of semi-cylinders and the orientation of stripes on the outer surface (and hence winding number) increased with increasing diameter until a new stripe appeared

    Modelling cell motility and chemotaxis with evolving surface finite elements

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    We present a mathematical and a computational framework for the modelling of cell motility. The cell membrane is represented by an evolving surface, with the movement of the cell determined by the interaction of various forces that act normal to the surface. We consider external forces such as those that may arise owing to inhomogeneities in the medium and a pressure that constrains the enclosed volume, as well as internal forces that arise from the reaction of the cells' surface to stretching and bending. We also consider a protrusive force associated with a reaction-diffusion system (RDS) posed on the cell membrane, with cell polarization modelled by this surface RDS. The computational method is based on an evolving surface finite-element method. The general method can account for the large deformations that arise in cell motility and allows the simulation of cell migration in three dimensions. We illustrate applications of the proposed modelling framework and numerical method by reporting on numerical simulations of a model for eukaryotic chemotaxis and a model for the persistent movement of keratocytes in two and three space dimensions. Movies of the simulated cells can be obtained from http://homepages.warwick.ac.uk/maskae/CV_Warwick/Chemotaxis.html
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