10,007 research outputs found

### Accretion process of the moon

Recent geochemical and geophysical data suggest that the initial temperature of the moon was strongly peaked toward the lunar surface. To explain such an initial temperature distribution, a simple model of accretion process of the moon is presented. The model assumes that the moon was formed from the accumulation of the solid particles or gases in the isolated, closed cloud. Two equations are derived to calculate the accretion rate and surface temperature of the accreting moon. Numerical calculations are made for a wide range of the parameters particle concentration and particle velocity in the cloud. A limited set of the parameters gives the initial temperature profiles as required by geochemical and geophysical data. These models of the proto-moon cloud indicate that the lunar outermost shell, about 400 km thick, was partially or completely molten just after the accretion of the moon and that the moon should have been formed in a period shorter than 1000 years. If the moon formed at a position nearer to the earth than its present one, the moon might have been formed in a period of less than one year

### Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy studies of graphite edges

We studied experimentally and theoretically the electronic local density of
states (LDOS) near single step edges at the surface of exfoliated graphite. In
scanning tunneling microscopy measurements, we observed the $(\sqrt{3} \times
\sqrt{3}) R 30^{\circ}$ and honeycomb superstructures extending over 3$-$4 nm
both from the zigzag and armchair edges. Calculations based on a
density-functional derived non-orthogonal tight-binding model show that these
superstructures can coexist if the two types of edges admix each other in real
graphite step edges. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements near the
zigzag edge reveal a clear peak in the LDOS at an energy below the Fermi energy
by 20 meV. No such a peak was observed near the armchair edge. We concluded
that this peak corresponds to the "edge state" theoretically predicted for
graphene ribbons, since a similar prominent LDOS peak due to the edge state is
obtained by the first principles calculations.Comment: 4 pages, 6 figures, APF9, Appl. Surf. Sci. \bf{241}, 43 (2005

### Entanglement, Haag-duality and type properties of infinite quantum spin chains

We consider an infinite spin chain as a bipartite system consisting of the
left and right half-chain and analyze entanglement properties of pure states
with respect to this splitting. In this context we show that the amount of
entanglement contained in a given state is deeply related to the von Neumann
type of the observable algebras associated to the half-chains. Only the type I
case belongs to the usual entanglement theory which deals with density
operators on tensor product Hilbert spaces, and only in this situation
separable normal states exist. In all other cases the corresponding state is
infinitely entangled in the sense that one copy of the system in such a state
is sufficient to distill an infinite amount of maximally entangled qubit pairs.
We apply this results to the critical XY model and show that its unique ground
state provides a particular example for this type of entanglement.Comment: LaTeX2e, 34 pages, 1 figure (pstricks

### Si/Ge hole-tunneling double-barrier resonant tunneling diodes formed on sputtered flat Ge layers

We have demonstrated Si/Ge hole-tunneling double-barrier resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) formed on flat Ge layers with a relaxation rate of 89% by our proposed method; in this method, the flat Ge layers can be directly formed on highly B-doped Si(001) substrates using our proposed sputter epitaxy method. The RTDs exhibit clear negative differential resistance effects in the static currentâ€“voltage (Iâ€“V) curves at room temperature. The quantized energy level estimation suggests that resonance peaks that appeared in the Iâ€“V curves are attributed to hole tunneling through the first heavy- and light-hole energy levels

### Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy of the electronic local density of states of graphite surfaces near monoatomic step edges

We measured the electronic local density of states (LDOS) of graphite
surfaces near monoatomic step edges, which consist of either the zigzag or
armchair edge, with the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy
(STS) techniques. The STM data reveal that the $(\sqrt{3} \times \sqrt{3}) R
30^{\circ}$ and honeycomb superstructures coexist over a length scale of 3-4 nm
from both the edges. By comparing with density-functional derived nonorthogonal
tight-binding calculations, we show that the coexistence is due to a slight
admixing of the two types of edges at the graphite surfaces. In the STS
measurements, a clear peak in the LDOS at negative bias voltages from -100 to
-20 mV was observed near the zigzag edges, while such a peak was not observed
near the armchair edges. We concluded that this peak corresponds to the
graphite "edge state" theoretically predicted by Fujita \textit{et al.} [J.
Phys. Soc. Jpn. {\bf 65}, 1920 (1996)] with a tight-binding model for graphene
ribbons. The existence of the edge state only at the zigzag type edge was also
confirmed by our first-principles calculations with different edge
terminations.Comment: 20 pages, 11 figure

### Kakutani Dichotomy on Free States

Two quasi-free states on a CAR or CCR algebra are shown to generate
quasi-equivalent representations unless they are disjoint.Comment: 12 page

### Construction of a Versatile Ultra-Low Temperature Scanning Tunneling Microscope

We constructed a dilution-refrigerator (DR) based ultra-low temperature
scanning tunneling microscope (ULT-STM) which works at temperatures down to 30
mK, in magnetic fields up to 6 T and in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). Besides these
extreme operation conditions, this STM has several unique features not
available in other DR based ULT-STMs. One can load STM tips as well as samples
with clean surfaces prepared in a UHV environment to an STM head keeping low
temperature and UHV conditions. After then, the system can be cooled back to
near the base temperature within 3 hours. Due to these capabilities, it has a
variety of applications not only for cleavable materials but also for almost
all conducting materials. The present ULT-STM has also an exceptionally high
stability in the presence of magnetic field and even during field sweep. We
describe details of its design, performance and applications for low
temperature physics.Comment: 6 pages, 9 figures. accepted for publication in Rev. Sci. Instru

### Direct Observation of Non-Monotonic dx2-y2-Wave Superconducting Gap in Electron-Doped High-Tc Superconductor Pr0.89LaCe0.11CuO4

We performed high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on
electron-doped high-Tc superconductor Pr0.89LaCe0.11CuO4 to study the
anisotropy of the superconducting gap. The observed momentum dependence is
basically consistent with the dx2-y2-wave symmetry, but obviously deviates from
the monotonic dx2-y2 gap function. The maximum gap is observed not at the zone
boundary, but at the hot spot where the antiferromagnetic spin fluctuation
strongly couples to the electrons on the Fermi surface. The present
experimental results unambiguously indicate the spin-mediated pairing mechanism
in electron-doped high-Tc superconductors.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

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