1,704 research outputs found

    Estimation of ungauged Bahr el Jebel flows based on upstream water levels and large scale spatial rainfall data

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    The study derives Bahr el Jebel flow data at Mongalla, combining upstream flow from Lake Albert and torrential runoff derived from the Collaborative Historical African Rainfall Model (CHARM) rainfall data in the catchment between Lake Albert and Mongalla using GIS techniques. The results provide an updated rating curve for Lake Albert outflows and currently unavailable flow data at Mongalla, the entry to the Sudd swamp, with a high level of confidence for the period after 1983; data which are essential for detailed hydrological assessments of the swamp system with its significant importance for the economies and lives of people in the area

    A Bast-like valve in the pigeon?

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    The first description of the presence of a utriculo-endolymphatic valve in human fetuses was given by Bast in 1928. Since then this valve-like structure is called Bast’s valve. Its exact function has not yet been established. The general opinion is that it has a protective function by having the possibility to separate the superior endolymphatic compartments of the labyrinth from the inferior compartment. Phylogenetically seen birds are the first vertebrates with a cochlear duct and a distinct inferior and superior part of the labyrinth. A structure in the pigeon inner ear, resembling Bast’s valve in mammals, is described

    Trip-Based Public Transit Routing

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    We study the problem of computing all Pareto-optimal journeys in a public transit network regarding the two criteria of arrival time and number of transfers taken. We take a novel approach, focusing on trips and transfers between them, allowing fine-grained modeling. Our experiments on the metropolitan network of London show that the algorithm computes full 24-hour profiles in 70 ms after a preprocessing phase of 30 s, allowing fast queries in dynamic scenarios.Comment: Minor corrections, no substantial changes. To be presented at ESA 201

    Transit Node Routing Reconsidered

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    Transit Node Routing (TNR) is a fast and exact distance oracle for road networks. We show several new results for TNR. First, we give a surprisingly simple implementation fully based on Contraction Hierarchies that speeds up preprocessing by an order of magnitude approaching the time for just finding a CH (which alone has two orders of magnitude larger query time). We also develop a very effective purely graph theoretical locality filter without any compromise in query times. Finally, we show that a specialization to the online many-to-one (or one-to-many) shortest path further speeds up query time by an order of magnitude. This variant even has better query time than the fastest known previous methods which need much more space.Comment: 19 pages, submitted to SEA'201

    IO-Top-k: index-access optimized top-k query processing

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    Top-k query processing is an important building block for ranked retrieval, with applications ranging from text and data integration to distributed aggregation of network logs and sensor data. Top-k queries operate on index lists for a query's elementary conditions and aggregate scores for result candidates. One of the best implementation methods in this setting is the family of threshold algorithms, which aim to terminate the index scans as early as possible based on lower and upper bounds for the final scores of result candidates. This procedure performs sequential disk accesses for sorted index scans, but also has the option of performing random accesses to resolve score uncertainty. This entails scheduling for the two kinds of accesses: 1) the prioritization of different index lists in the sequential accesses, and 2) the decision on when to perform random accesses and for which candidates. The prior literature has studied some of these scheduling issues, but only for each of the two access types in isolation. The current paper takes an integrated view of the scheduling issues and develops novel strategies that outperform prior proposals by a large margin. Our main contributions are new, principled, scheduling methods based on a Knapsack-related optimization for sequential accesses and a cost model for random accesses. The methods can be further boosted by harnessing probabilistic estimators for scores, selectivities, and index list correlations. We also discuss efficient implementation techniques for the underlying data structures. In performance experiments with three different datasets (TREC Terabyte, HTTP server logs, and IMDB), our methods achieved significant performance gains compared to the best previously known methods: a factor of up to 3 in terms of execution costs, and a factor of 5 in terms of absolute run-times of our implementation. Our best techniques are close to a lower bound for the execution cost of the considered class of threshold algorithms

    {EpiExplorer}: {Live} Exploration and Global Analysis of Large Epigenomic Datasets

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    ABSTRACT: Epigenome mapping consortia are generating resources of tremendous value for studying epigenetic regulation. To maximize their utility and impact, new tools are needed that facilitate interactive analysis of epigenome datasets. Here we describe EpiExplorer, a web tool for exploring genome and epigenome data on a genomic scale. We demonstrate EpiExplorer's utility by describing a hypothesis-generating analysis of DNA hydroxymethylation in relation to public reference maps of the human epigenome. All EpiExplorer analyses are performed dynamically within seconds, using an efficient and versatile text indexing scheme that we introduce to bioinformatics. EpiExplorer is available at http://epiexplorer.mpi-inf.mpg.de

    Identification of β2-adrenoceptors on guinea pig alveolar macrophages using (-)-3-[125I]iodocyanopindolol

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    The β-adrenoceptor antagonist (-)-3-[125I]iodocyanopindolol ([125I]ICYP) binds with high affinity and in a saturable way to membranes of guinea pig alveolar macrophages. The equilibrium dissociation constant for [125I]ICYP is 24.3 ± 1.2 pM, and the number of binding sites is 166.3 ± 13.7 fmol/mg protein (N=4, ±SEM). Displacement studies with selective antagonists showed that [125I]ICYP labels β2-adrenoceptors on guinea pig alveolar macrophages

    Geospatial partitioning of open transit data

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    Defense Mechanisms of Hepatocytes Against Burkholderia pseudomallei

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    The Gram-negative facultative intracellular rod Burkholderia pseudomallei causes melioidosis, an infectious disease with a wide range of clinical presentations. Among the observed visceral abscesses, the liver is commonly affected. However, neither this organotropism of B. pseudomallei nor local hepatic defense mechanisms have been thoroughly investigated so far. Own previous studies using electron microscopy of the murine liver after systemic infection of mice indicated that hepatocytes might be capable of killing B. pseudomallei. Therefore, the aim of this study was to further elucidate the interaction of B. pseudomallei with these cells and to analyze the role of hepatocytes in anti-B. pseudomallei host defense. In vitro studies using the human hepatocyte cell line HepG2 revealed that B. pseudomallei can invade these cells. Subsequently, B. pseudomallei is able to escape from the vacuole, to replicate within the cytosol of HepG2 cells involving its type 3 and type 6 secretion systems, and to induce actin tail formation. Furthermore, stimulation of HepG2 cells showed that IFNγ can restrict growth of B. pseudomallei in the early and late phase of infection whereas the combination of IFNγ, IL-1β, and TNFα is required for the maximal antibacterial activity. This anti-B. pseudomallei defense of HepG2 cells did not seem to be mediated by inducible nitric oxide synthase-derived nitric oxide or NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide. In summary, this is the first study describing B. pseudomallei intracellular life cycle characteristics in hepatocytes and showing that IFNγ-mediated, but nitric oxide- and reactive oxygen species-independent, effector mechanisms are important in anti-B. pseudomallei host defense of hepatocytes