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    The B<sub>12</sub>-Radical SAM Enzyme PoyC Catalyzes Valine C<sub>β</sub>‑Methylation during Polytheonamide Biosynthesis

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    Genomic and metagenomic investigations have recently led to the delineation of a novel class of natural products called ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs). RiPPs are ubiquitous among living organisms and include pharmaceutically relevant compounds such as antibiotics and toxins. A prominent example is polytheonamide A, which exhibits numerous post-translational modifications, some of which were unknown in ribosomal peptides until recently. Among these post-translational modifications, C-methylations have been proposed to be catalyzed by two putative radical <i>S</i>-adenosylmethionine (rSAM) enzymes, PoyB and PoyC. Here we report the <i>in vitro</i> activity of PoyC, the first B<sub>12</sub>-dependent rSAM enzyme catalyzing peptide C<sub>β</sub>-methylation. We show that PoyC catalyzes the formation of <i>S</i>-adenosylhomocysteine and 5′-deoxyadenosine and the transfer of a methyl group to l-valine residue. In addition, we demonstrate for the first time that B<sub>12</sub>-rSAM enzymes have a tightly bound MeCbl cofactor that during catalysis transfers a methyl group originating from <i>S</i>-adenosyl-l-methionine. Collectively, our results shed new light on polytheonamide biosynthesis and the large and emerging family of B<sub>12</sub>-rSAM enzymes