6 research outputs found

    The “vicious cycle" of enteropathogens, malnutrition, and impaired childhood development, and multifaceted opportunities for intervention.

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    <p>Figure adapted from Nutr Rev. 2008 September; 66(9): 487–505 <a href="http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002125#pntd.0002125-Guerrant1" target="_blank">[15]</a>.</p

    Poisson model of risk factors for <i>Campylobacter.</i>

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    *<p>significant at <0.100 level,</p>**<p>significant and <0.050 level,</p>***<p>significant at <0.010 level.</p><p>Sex, seasonal terms, maternal age, breastfeeding status, birth weight, private household latrine, and the presence of household poultry, were not significant in any model and are not shown.</p><p>The association between prior nutritional status and prior diarrhea, and prior <i>Campylobacter</i>, were examined via correlations and kappa statistics and found to be low (rho<0.05).</p

    Association between <i>Campylobacter</i> and weight gain.

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    <p>*significant at the p< = 0.10 level.</p>**<p>significant at the p< = 0.05 level.</p>***<p>significant at the p< = 0.01 level.</p><p>Weight models adjusted for stunting at onset of interval, WHZ category at onset of interval, season, age, birth weight and per capita income.</p><p>Fractional polynomial age term 1: ; age term 2: where <i>age</i> is the child's age, in days, divided by 1000.</p><p>In model 1, <i>Campylobacter</i>-related variables were asymptomatic <i>Campylobacter</i>, and symptomatic (diarrhea-associated) <i>Campylobacter</i> (2 variables).</p><p>In model 2, <i>Campylobacter-</i>related variables were asymptomatic <i>campylobacter</i>, symptomatic treated <i>campylobacter</i>, and symptomatic untreated <i>campylobacter</i> (three variables).</p

    Association between <i>Campylobacter</i> and linear growth.

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    *<p>significant at the p = 0.10 level.</p>**<p>significant at the p = 0.05 level.</p>***<p>significant at the p = 0.01 level.</p><p>Height models adjusted for stunting at onset of interval, WHZ category at onset of interval, season, age, birth weight and per capita income.</p><p>Fractional polynomial age term 1: ; age term 2: where <i>age</i> is the child's age, in days, divided by 1000.</p><p>In model 1, <i>Campylobacter</i>-related variables were asymptomatic <i>Campylobacter</i>, and symptomatic (diarrhea-associated) <i>Campylobacter</i> (2 variables).</p><p>In model 2, <i>Campylobacter-</i>related variables were asymptomatic <i>campylobacter</i>, symptomatic treated <i>campylobacter</i>, and symptomatic untreated <i>campylobacter</i> (three variables).</p

    Diarrhea episodes and asymptomatic stools, by <i>Campylobacter</i> species.

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    *<p>Diarrheal episodes were considered associated with <i>Campylobacter</i> when at least one stool sample from the episode was culture-positive for Campylobacter. A stool sample was considered associated with the episode when it was collected during, or up to one day after, the episode. Only stool samples that could be associated with anthropometry are reported here.</p><p>Asymptomatic stools were collected quarterly.</p

    Smoothed plots of incidence versus age, and the percentage of stools positive by etiology.

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    <p>The peak incidence of <i>Campylobacter</i>-associated diarrhea occurs at approximately 18 months of age, and declines rapidly thereafter. However, its isolation rate in diarrheal and asymptomatic stool samples remains roughly constant from 18–72 months of age.</p
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