23 research outputs found

    “Caracterización de los sistemas de producción de ovinos de pelo en el suroeste del departamento de Matagalpa 2010”

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    Con el objetivo de caracterizar los sistemas de producción de ovinos de pelo en el territorio suroeste del departamento de Matagalpa 2010. (Sébaco, Ciudad Darío, San Isidro y Matagalpa). Se aplicó una encuesta a 103 productores que poseen ovinos de pelo, la muestra se definió aleatoriamente utilizando la ecuación planteada por Scheaffer (1987), se utilizó la técnica de muestreo de bola de nieve, planteada por Frey et al (2000). Esta investigación permitió conocer las debilidades y oportunidades en los sistemas de explotación de esta especie promisoria para la zona seca del país. Con los resultados obtenidos de las encuestas se procedió ha elaborar una base de datos en el programa SPSS versión 11.5 en español. Encontrando un predominio del sexo femenino como titulares de las explotaciones ovinas, 58.3% cursó educación primaria, el 98% de las explotaciones cuentan con raza pelibuey, el 100% de las explotaciones realizan destete y monta de forma natural, una media de mortalidad de corderos de 1, alimentan a las ovejas con potrero sin división (81.6%), se suministra pasto de corte, pastoreo, leguminosas y se suplementa sal común 49.5%, aplican vacunas contra ántrax y pierna negra (63.1%), desparasitaciones internas y externas (66%), ambos con una frecuencia de 2 veces al año, en el manejo productivo no se lleva control en la actividad ovina (100%), los equipo e instalaciones son rústicas, los corrales ovinos el son elaborados con alambre y/o madera, techado con plástico y/o zinc (49.51%), en cuanto a asistencia técnica el 58.3% ha recibid

    Induction of p65 nuclear translocation and NF-κB activation by metallic nickel particles.

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    <p>JB6 cells, stably transfected with NF-κB luciferase reporter plasmid, were seeded onto 24-well plate and incubated overnight. Cells were treated with/without metallic nickel nano- or fine particles for 24 h. (A) Effect of nickel particles on nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB as measured by indirect immunofluorescence analysis using an anti-p65 primary antibody. The bright greenish areas represent nuclei that stained with anti-p65 antibody. After treatments, cells were fixed, permeabilized, blocked, and stained with NF-κB monoclonal p65 antibody for 3 h. Alexa Fluor 488 goat anti-rabbit secondary antibody was added for 1 h. NF-κB is 100% expression in all cell cytoplasm, metallic nickel nano- or fine particles may induce NF-κB translocation from cytoplasm into the cell nucleus. (B) The NF-κB activity was measured by the luciferase activity assay. <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0092418#s3" target="_blank">Results</a> are mean and standard error of four assay wells. The experiment was repeated two times. * <i>P</i><0.05 versus control; † <i>P</i><0.05 versus fine particles. TPA (20 ng/ml) was set as a positive control.</p

    Induction of c-Jun nuclear translocation and AP-1 activation by metallic nickel particles.

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    <p>JB6 cells, stably transfected with AP-1 luciferase reporter plasmid, were seeded onto 24-well plate and incubated overnight. Cells were treated with/without metallic nickel nano- or fine particles for 24 h. (A) Effect of metallic nickel particles on nuclear translocation of the c-Jun subunit of AP-1 as measured by indirect immunofluorescence analysis using an anti-c-Jun primary antibody. The bright greenish areas represent nuclei that stained with anti-c-Jun antibody. After treatments, cells were fixed, permeabilized, blocked, and stained with monoclonal c-Jun antibody for 3 h. Alexa Fluor 488 goat anti-rabbit secondary antibody was added for 1 h. AP-1 is 100% expression in all cell nuclei, metallic nickel nano- or fine particles may increase the expression (staining density) in the cell nucleus. (B) The AP-1 activity was measured by the luciferase activity assay. <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0092418#s3" target="_blank">Results</a> are means and standard errors of four assay wells. The experiment was repeated two times. * <i>P</i><0.05 versus control; † <i>P</i><0.05 versus fine particles. TPA (20 ng/ml) was set as a positive control.</p

    Effects of metallic nickel particles on p53 transcription activity and protein levels.

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    <p>JB6 cells, stably transfected with p53 luciferase reporter plasmid, were seeded onto a 24-well plate and incubated overnight. Cells were treated with/without metallic nickel nano- or fine particles for 24 h. The p53 transcription activity and protein levels were measured by the luciferase activity assay (A) and western-blot (B), respectively. Metallic nickel nanoparticles caused a greater decrease of p53 transcription activity and protein levels than fine particles. * <i>P</i><0.05 <i>versus</i> control. TPA (20 ng/ml) or UVB (4 kJ/m<sup>2</sup>) were set as a positive control.</p

    Effects of metallic nickel particles on protein expressions of R-Ras, c-myc, c-Jun, p65, p50 and HIF-1alpha.

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    <p>JB6 cells were treated with 20 µg/cm<sup>2</sup> metallic nickel nano- or fine particles for 1, 3, 6 and 8 h. Western blot results show that both metallic nickel nano- and fine particles induced up-regulation of protein expressions of R-Ras, c-myc, c-Jun, p65, and p50 in a time-dependent manner. Metallic nickel nanoparticles elicited a higher stimulation on these protein expressions compared to fine particles. Nanoparticles induced a significant HIF-1alpha up-regulation after 6 and 8 h treatment.</p

    Effects of metallic nickel particles on colony formation of JB6 P<sup>+</sup> cells in soft agar assay.

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    <p>Metallic nickel nano- or fine particle-treated or untreated JB6 P<sup>+</sup> cells (1×10<sup>4</sup>) were incubated on soft agar medium for 21 days. TPA (20 ng/ml) was set as a positive control. (A) Images of colony formation of JB6 P<sup>+</sup> cells in soft agar assay. (a) Control. (b) TPA (20 ng/ml). (c) Metallic nickel fine particles. (d) Metallic nickel nanoparticles. (B) Number of colonies/10<sup>4</sup> cells in soft agar assay. The cell colonies were scored by a computerized image analyzer. * <i>P</i><0.05 versus untreated control.</p

    Comparison of apoptotic cell number<sup>§</sup> after cells were treated with Ni NPs alone or Ni NPs + EGCG.

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    <p>Notes: <sup>§</sup>including early and late-stage apoptotic cells; *** <i>P</i><0.001, Ni NPs alone compared with Ni NPs + EGCG; +++ <i>P</i><0.001, compared with control—(without any treatment); # <i>P</i><0.05, ### <i>P</i><0.001, compared with control + 10 μM EGCG; error bars, SE. Abbreviations: Ni NPs, nickel nanoparticles; EGCG, epigallocatechin-3-gallate.</p

    Cell viability after cells were treated with Ni NPs alone or Ni NPs + EGCG.

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    <p>Note: *<i>P</i><0.05, Ni NPs alone compared with Ni NPs + EGCG; ++ <i>P</i><0.01, +++ <i>P</i><0.001, compared with control—(without any treatment); ## <i>P</i><0.01, ### <i>P</i><0.001, compared with control + 10 μM EGCG; error bars, SE. Abbreviations: Ni NPs, nickel nanoparticles; EGCG, epigallocatechin-3-gallate.</p

    Morphological changes after cells were treated with Ni NPs alone or Ni NPs + EGCG.

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    <p>Note: Magnification of the light microscope was at 20×. Abbreviations: Ni NPs, nickel nanoparticles; EGCG, epigallocatechin-3-gallate.</p
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