24,347 research outputs found

    Determine the galaxy bias factors on large scales using bispectrum method

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    We study whether the bias factors of galaxies can be unbiasedly recovered from their power spectra and bispectra. We use a set of numerical N-body simulations and construct large mock galaxy catalogs based upon the semi-analytical model of Croton et al. (2006). We measure the reduced bispectra for galaxies of different luminosity, and determine the linear and first nonlinear bias factors from their bispectra. We find that on large scales down to that of the wavenumber k=0.1h/Mpc, the bias factors b1 and b2 are nearly constant, and b1 obtained with the bispectrum method agrees very well with the expected value. The nonlinear bias factor b2 is negative, except for the most luminous galaxies with M<-23 which have a positive b2. The behavior of b2 of galaxies is consistent with the b2 mass dependence of their host halos. We show that it is essential to have an accurate estimation of the dark matter bispectrum in order to have an unbiased measurement of b1 and b2. We also test the analytical approach of incorporating halo occupation distribution to model the galaxy power spectrum and bispectrum. The halo model predictions do not fit the simulation results well on the precision requirement of current cosmological studies.Comment: 9 pages, 8 figures, accepted for publication in Ap

    Band Gap of Strained Graphene Nanoribbons

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    The band structures of strained graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are examined by a tight binding Hamiltonian that is directly related to the type and strength of strains. Compared to the two-dimensional graphene whose band gap remains close to zero even if a large strain is applied, the band gap of graphene nanoribbon (GNR) is sensitive to both uniaxial and shears strains. The effect of strain on the electronic structure of a GNR strongly depends on its edge shape and structural indices. For an armchair GNR, uniaxial weak strain changes the band gap in a linear fashion, and for a large strain, it results in periodic oscillation of the band gap. On the other hand, shear strain always tend to reduce the band gap. For a zigzag GNR, the effect of strain is to change the spin polarization at the edges of GNR, thereby modulate the band gap. A simple analytical model is proposed to interpret the band gap responds to strain in armchair GNR, which agrees with the numerical results.Comment: 30 pages,10 figure

    Inelastic Phonon Scattering in Graphene FETs

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    Inelastic phonon scattering in graphene field-effect transistors (FETs) is studied by numerically solving the Boltzmann transport equation in three dimensional real and phase spaces (x, kx, ky). A kink behavior due to ambipolar transport agreeing with experiments is observed. While low field behavior has previously been mostly attributed to elastic impurity scattering in earlier studies, it is found in the study that even low field mobility is affected by inelastic phonon scattering in recent graphene FET experiments reporting high mobilities . As the FET is biased in the saturation regime, the average carrier injection velocity at the source end of the device is found to remain almost constant with regard to the applied gate voltage over a wide voltage range, which results in significantly improved transistor linearity compared to what a simpler model would predict. Physical mechanisms for good linearity are explained, showing the potential of graphene FETs for analogue electronics applications

    Unconventional behavior of Dirac fermions in three-dimensional gauge theory

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    We study the unconventional behavior of massless Dirac fermions due to interaction with a U(1) gauge field in two spatial dimensions. At zero chemical potential, the longitudinal and transverse components of gauge interaction are both long-ranged. There is no fermion velocity renormalization since the system respects Lorentz invariance. At finite chemical potential, the Lorentz invariance is explicitly broken by the finite Fermi surface. The longitudinal gauge interaction is statically screened and becomes unimportant, whereas the transverse gauge interaction remains long-ranged and leads to singular renormalization of fermion velocity. The anomalous dimension of fermion velocity is calculated by means of the renormalization group method. We then examine the influence of singular velocity renormalization on several physical quantities, and show that they exhibit different behavior at zero and finite chemical potential.Comment: 9 pages, 4 figure