294 research outputs found

    Giant Planets

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    We review the interior structure and evolution of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, and giant exoplanets with particular emphasis on constraining their global composition. Compared to the first edition of this review, we provide a new discussion of the atmospheric compositions of the solar system giant planets, we discuss the discovery of oscillations of Jupiter and Saturn, the significant improvements in our understanding of the behavior of material at high pressures and the consequences for interior and evolution models. We place the giant planets in our Solar System in context with the trends seen for exoplanets.Comment: This chapter is to be published in the second edition of the Treatise on Geophysics (Eds. T. Spohn, G. Schubert). 42 pages, 16 figures. Accepted 25 February 201

    Interior Models of Saturn: Including the Uncertainties in Shape and Rotation

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    The accurate determination of Saturn's gravitational coefficients by Cassini could provide tighter constrains on Saturn's internal structure. Also, occultation measurements provide important information on the planetary shape which is often not considered in structure models. In this paper we explore how wind velocities and internal rotation affect the planetary shape and the constraints on Saturn's interior. We show that within the geodetic approach (Lindal et al., 1985, ApJ, 90, 1136) the derived physical shape is insensitive to the assumed deep rotation. Saturn's re-derived equatorial and polar radii at 100 mbar are found to be 54,445 ±\pm10 km and 60,365±\pm10 km, respectively. To determine Saturn's interior we use {\it 1 D} three-layer hydrostatic structure models, and present two approaches to include the constraints on the shape. These approaches, however, result in only small differences in Saturn's derived composition. The uncertainty in Saturn's rotation period is more significant: with Voyager's 10h39mns period, the derived mass of heavy elements in the envelope is 0-7 M⊕_{\oplus}. With a rotation period of 10h32mns, this value becomes <4<4 M⊕M_{\oplus}, below the minimum mass inferred from spectroscopic measurements. Saturn's core mass is found to depend strongly on the pressure at which helium phase separation occurs, and is estimated to be 5-20 M⊕_{\oplus}. Lower core masses are possible if the separation occurs deeper than 4 Mbars. We suggest that the analysis of Cassini's radio occultation measurements is crucial to test shape models and could lead to constraints on Saturn's rotation profile and departures from hydrostatic equilibrium.Comment: Accepted for publication in Ap

    A non-grey analytical model for irradiated atmospheres. I: Derivation

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    Context. Semi-grey atmospheric models (with one opacity for the visible and one opacity for the infrared) are useful to understand the global structure of irradiated atmospheres, their dynamics and the interior structure and evolution of planets, brown dwarfs and stars. But when compared to direct numerical radiative transfer calculations for irradiated exoplanets, these models systematically overestimate the temperatures at low optical depth, independently of the opacity parameters. We wish to understand why semi-grey models fail at low optical depths, and provide a more accurate approximation to the atmospheric structure by accounting for the variable opacity in the infrared. Our analytical irradiated non-grey model is found to provide a range of temperatures that is consistent with that obtained by numerical calculations. We find that even for slightly non-grey thermal opacities the temperature structure differs significantly from previous semi-grey models. For small values of beta (expected when lines are dominant), we find that the non-grey effects are confined to low-optical depths. However, for beta larger than 0.5 (appropriate in the presence of bands with a wavelength-dependence smaller or comparable with the width of the Planck function), we find that the temperature structure is affected even down to infrared optical depths unity and deeper as a result of the so-called blanketing effect. The expressions that we derive may be used to provide a proper functional form for algorithms that invert the atmospheric properties from spectral information. Because a full atmospheric structure can be calculated directly, these expressions should be useful for simulations of the dynamics of these atmospheres and of the thermal evolution of the planets. Finally, they should be used to test full radiative transfer models and improve their convergence.Comment: Accepted by A&A, model available at http://www.oca.eu/parmentier/nongre

    Formation of dust-rich planetesimals from sublimated pebbles inside of the snow line

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    Content: For up to a few millions of years, pebbles must provide a quasi-steady inflow of solids from the outer parts of protoplanetary disks to their inner regions. Aims: We wish to understand how a significant fraction of the pebbles grows into planetesimals instead of being lost to the host star. Methods:We examined analytically how the inward flow of pebbles is affected by the snow line and under which conditions dust-rich (rocky) planetesimals form. When calculating the inward drift of solids that is due to gas drag, we included the back-reaction of the gas to the motion of the solids. Results: We show that in low-viscosity protoplanetary disks (with a monotonous surface density similar to that of the minimum-mass solar nebula), the flow of pebbles does not usually reach the required surface density to form planetesimals by streaming instability. We show, however, that if the pebble-to-gas-mass flux exceeds a critical value, no steady solution can be found for the solid-to-gas ratio. This is particularly important for low-viscosity disks (alpha < 10^(-3)) where we show that inside of the snow line, silicate-dust grains ejected from sublimating pebbles can accumulate, eventually leading to the formation of dust-rich planetesimals directly by gravitational instability. Conclusions: This formation of dust-rich planetesimals may occur for extended periods of time, while the snow line sweeps from several au to inside of 1 au. The rock-to-ice ratio may thus be globally significantly higher in planetesimals and planets than in the central star.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures; accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysic

    Suppression of type I migration by disk winds

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    Planets less massive than Saturn tend to rapidly migrate inward in protoplanetary disks. This is the so-called type I migration. Simulations attempting to reproduce the observed properties of exoplanets show that type I migration needs to be significantly reduced over a wide region of the disk for a long time. However, the mechanism capable of suppressing type I migration over a wide region has remained elusive. The recently found turbulence-driven disk winds offer new possibilities. We investigate the effects of disk winds on the disk profile and type I migration for a range of parameters that describe the strength of disk winds. We also examine the in situ formation of close-in super-Earths in disks that evolve through disk winds. The disk profile, which is regulated by viscous diffusion and disk winds, was derived by solving the diffusion equation. We carried out a number of simulations and plot here migration maps that indicate the type I migration rate. We also performed N-body simulations of the formation of close-in super-Earths from a population of planetesimals and planetary embryos. We define a key parameter, Kw, which determines the ratio of strengths between the viscous diffusion and disk winds. For a wide range of Kw, the type I migration rate is presented in migration maps. These maps show that type I migration is suppressed over the whole close-in region when the effects of disk winds are relatively strong (Kw < 100). From the results of N-body simulations, we see that type I migration is significantly slowed down assuming Kw = 40. We also show that the results of N-body simulations match statistical orbital distributions of close-in super-Earths.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figures, accepted for publication in A&A Letter

    The composition of transiting giant extrasolar planets

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    In principle, the combined measurements of the mass and radius a giant exoplanet allow one to determine the relative fraction of hydrogen and helium and of heavy elements in the planet. However, uncertainties on the underlying physics imply that some known transiting planets appear anomalously large, and this generally prevent any firm conclusion when a planet is considered on an individual basis. On the basis of a sample of 9 transiting planets known at the time, Guillot et al. A&A 453, L21 (1996), concluded that all planets could be explained with the same set of hypotheses, either by large but plausible modifications of the equations of state, opacities, or by the addition of an energy source, probably related to the dissipation of kinetic energy by tides. On this basis, they concluded that the amount of heavy elements in close-in giant planets is correlated with the metallicity of the parent star. Furthermore they showed that planets around metal-rich stars can possess large amounts of heavy elements, up to 100 Earth masses. These results are confirmed by studying the present sample of 18 transiting planets with masses between that of Saturn and twice the mass of Jupiter.Comment: 13 pages, 6 figure

    On the filtering and processing of dust by planetesimals 1. Derivation of collision probabilities for non-drifting planetesimals

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    Context. Circumstellar disks are known to contain a significant mass in dust ranging from micron to centimeter size. Meteorites are evidence that individual grains of those sizes were collected and assembled into planetesimals in the young solar system. Aims. We assess the efficiency of dust collection of a swarm of non-drifting planetesimals {\rev with radii ranging from 1 to 10310^3\,km and beyond. Methods. We calculate the collision probability of dust drifting in the disk due to gas drag by planetesimal accounting for several regimes depending on the size of the planetesimal, dust, and orbital distance: the geometric, Safronov, settling, and three-body regimes. We also include a hydrodynamical regime to account for the fact that small grains tend to be carried by the gas flow around planetesimals. Results. We provide expressions for the collision probability of dust by planetesimals and for the filtering efficiency by a swarm of planetesimals. For standard turbulence conditions (i.e., a turbulence parameter α=10−2\alpha=10^{-2}), filtering is found to be inefficient, meaning that when crossing a minimum-mass solar nebula (MMSN) belt of planetesimals extending between 0.1 AU and 35 AU most dust particles are eventually accreted by the central star rather than colliding with planetesimals. However, if the disk is weakly turbulent (α=10−4\alpha=10^{-4}) filtering becomes efficient in two regimes: (i) when planetesimals are all smaller than about 10 km in size, in which case collisions mostly take place in the geometric regime; and (ii) when planetary embryos larger than about 1000 km in size dominate the distribution, have a scale height smaller than one tenth of the gas scale height, and dust is of millimeter size or larger in which case most collisions take place in the settling regime. These two regimes have very different properties: we find that the local filtering efficiency xfilter,MMSNx_{filter,MMSN} scales with r−7/4r^{-7/4} (where rr is the orbital distance) in the geometric regime, but with r−1/4r^{-1/4} to r1/4r^{1/4} in the settling regime. This implies that the filtering of dust by small planetesimals should occur close to the central star and with a short spread in orbital distances. On the other hand, the filtering by embryos in the settling regime is expected to be more gradual and determined by the extent of the disk of embryos. Dust particles much smaller than millimeter size tend only to be captured by the smallest planetesimals because they otherwise move on gas streamlines and their collisions take place in the hydrodynamical regime. Conclusions. Our results hint at an inside-out formation of planetesimals in the infant solar system because small planetesimals in the geometrical limit can filter dust much more efficiently close to the central star. However, even a fully-formed belt of planetesimals such as the MMSN only marginally captures inward-drifting dust and this seems to imply that dust in the protosolar disk has been filtered by planetesimals even smaller than 1 km (not included in this study) or that it has been assembled into planetesimals by other mechanisms (e.g., orderly growth, capture into vortexes). Further refinement of our work concerns, among other things: a quantitative description of the transition region between the hydro and settling regimes; an assessment of the role of disk turbulence for collisions, in particular in the hydro regime; and the coupling of our model to a planetesimal formation model.Comment: Accepted for publication in A\&A. 31 pages, 29 figures. (Version corrected by the A\&A Language Editor

    Revisiting the pre-main-sequence evolution of stars I. Importance of accretion efficiency and deuterium abundance

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    Recent theoretical work has shown that the pre-main-sequence (PMS) evolution of stars is much more complex than previously envisioned. Instead of the traditional steady, one-dimensional solution, accretion may be episodic and not necessarily symmetrical, thereby affecting the energy deposited inside the star and its interior structure. Given this new framework, we want to understand what controls the evolution of accreting stars. We use the MESA stellar evolution code with various sets of conditions. In particular, we account for the (unknown) efficiency of accretion in burying gravitational energy into the protostar through a parameter, ξ\xi, and we vary the amount of deuterium present. We confirm the findings of previous works that the evolution changes significantly with the amount of energy that is lost during accretion. We find that deuterium burning also regulates the PMS evolution. In the low-entropy accretion scenario, the evolutionary tracks in the H-R diagram are significantly different from the classical tracks and are sensitive to the deuterium content. A comparison of theoretical evolutionary tracks and observations allows us to exclude some cold accretion models (ξ∼0\xi\sim 0) with low deuterium abundances. We confirm that the luminosity spread seen in clusters can be explained by models with a somewhat inefficient injection of accretion heat. The resulting evolutionary tracks then become sensitive to the accretion heat efficiency, initial core entropy, and deuterium content. In this context, we predict that clusters with a higher D/H ratio should have less scatter in luminosity than clusters with a smaller D/H. Future work on this issue should include radiation-hydrodynamic simulations to determine the efficiency of accretion heating and further observations to investigate the deuterium content in star-forming regions. (abbrev.)Comment: Published in A&A. 16 pages, 14 figure
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