1,955 research outputs found

    Economic Policy in Stormy Waters: Financial Vulnerability in Emerging Economies

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    I. Introduction II. Time Inconsistency III. The Origins of Financial Crises IV. The Nature of Financial Crises V. Emerging Bond Markets VI. National Economic Policy Proposals VII. International Economic Policy Proposals VIII. Alternative Monetary Rules IX. Conclusionstime inconsistency; external factors; contagion; sudden stop; fear of floating; dollarization; inflation targeting

    Interest Rate Rules, Inflation Stabilization, and Imperfect Credibility: The Small Open Economy Case

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    The paper examines the robustness of Interest Rate Rules, IRRs, in the context of an imperfectly credible stabilization program, closely following the format of much of the literature in open-economy models, e.g., Calvo and Végh (1993 and 1999). A basic result is that IRRs, like Exchange Rate Based Stabilization, ERBS, programs, could give rise to macroeconomic distortion, e.g., underutilization of capacity and real exchange rate misalignment. However, while under imperfect credibility EBRS is associated with overheating and current account deficits, IRRs give rise to somewhat opposite results. Moreover, the paper shows that popular policies to counteract misalignment, like Strategic Foreign Exchange Market Intervention or Controls on International Capital Mobility may not be effective or could even become counterproductive. The bottom line is that the greater exchange rate flexibility granted by IRRs is by far not a sure shot against the macroeconomic costs infringed by imperfect credibility.

    Monetary Policy Challenges in Emerging Markets: Sudden Stop, Liability Dollarization, and Lender of Last Resort

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    The paper argues that Emerging Market economies (EMs) face financial vulnerabilities that weaken the effectiveness of a domestic Lender of Last Resort (LOLR). As a result, monetary policy is inextricably linked to the state of the credit market. In particular, the central bank should be ready to operate as LOLR during Sudden Stop (of capital inflows) by releasing international reserves in an effective manner. These conditions also impact on optimal monetary policy in normal but high-volatility periods. The paper further argues that during those periods interest rate rules may engender excessive volatility of exchange rates and, thus, that it may be advisable to temporarily supplement those rules by foreign exchange market intervention or outright exchange rate pegging. At a fundamental level, the analysis suggests that the state-of-the-art literature summarized by Woodford (2003) or even more heterodox approaches exemplified by Stiglitz and Greenwald (2003) likely fall short of providing a satisfactory guide for monetary policy in EMs.

    Capital Flows and Capital-Market Crises: The Simple Economics of Sudden Stops

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    The paper studies mechanisms through which a sudden stop in international credit flows may bring about financial and balance of payments crises. It is shown that these crises can occur even though the current account deficit is fully financed by foreign direct investment. However, equity and long-term bond financing may shield the economy from sudden stop crises. The paper also examines possible factors that could trigger sudden stops, and argues that the greater independence that countries have, as compared to regions of a given country, could help to explain why sudden stop crises are more prevalent and destructive at international than at national levels.

    Variedades de crisis del mercado de capitales

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    (Disponible en idioma inglés únicamente) En este mundo postmoderno de gran movilidad de los capitales, los países están siendo disciplinados por el anónimo mercado de capitales. Una perspectiva de la situación, quizá la imperante entre los economistas, es que Wall Street saca de quicio porque el programa económico en uso es insostenible y es probable que se produzcan crisis. Una perspectiva polar es que los países están a merced del mercado de capitales. En este trabajo se procura acercar estas dos perspectivas, haciendo énfasis especial en las crisis de la balanza de pagos.

    Explaining Sudden Stops, Growth Collapse and BOP Crises: The Case of Distortionary Output Taxes

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    The paper discusses a model in which growth is a negative function of fiscal burden. Moreover, growth discontinuously switches from high to low as fiscal burden reaches a critical level. Growth collapse is associated with a Sudden Stop of capital inflows, real depreciation and a drop in output (driven by a fall in the output of nontradables)-all of which have occurred during recent financial crises in Emerging Markets. The monetary version of the model is employed to show that BOP crises could be a result of fiscal distortions. In particular, it is further argued that BOP crisis could be a justifiable central bank response to growth collapse, although realistic circumstances may make this response highly ineffective. An important policy implication of the model is that in order to avoid Sudden Stop crises, policymakers should aim at improving fiscal institutions. Lowering the fiscal deficit is highly effective in the medium term

    Monetary Policy Challenges in Emerging Markets: Sudden Stop, Liability Dollarization, and Lender of Last Resort

    Get PDF
    The paper argues that Emerging Market economies (EMs) face financial vulnerabilities that weaken the effectiveness of a domestic Lender of Last Resort (LOLR). As a result, monetary policy is inextricably linked to the state of the credit market. In particular, the central bank should be ready to operate as LOLR during Sudden Stop (of capital inflows) by releasing international reserves in an effective manner. These conditions also impact on optimal monetary policy in normal but high-volatility periods. The paper further argues that during those periods interest rate rules may engender excessive volatility of exchange rates and, thus, that it may be advisable to temporarily supplement those rules by foreign exchange market intervention or outright exchange rate pegging. At a fundamental level, the analysis suggests that the state-of-the-art literature summarized by Woodford (2003) or even more heterodox approaches exemplified by Stiglitz and Greenwald (2003) are likely fall short of providing a satisfactory guide for monetary policy in EMs.
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