2,805 research outputs found

    A developmental and genetic classification for malformations of cortical development: update 2012.

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    Malformations of cerebral cortical development include a wide range of developmental disorders that are common causes of neurodevelopmental delay and epilepsy. In addition, study of these disorders contributes greatly to the understanding of normal brain development and its perturbations. The rapid recent evolution of molecular biology, genetics and imaging has resulted in an explosive increase in our knowledge of cerebral cortex development and in the number and types of malformations of cortical development that have been reported. These advances continue to modify our perception of these malformations. This review addresses recent changes in our perception of these disorders and proposes a modified classification based upon updates in our knowledge of cerebral cortical development

    Exploring the link between the corporate governance and efficiency of Italian water utilities

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    The present paper analyzes the linkage between the corporate governance of Italian water utilities (ownership, board size and board composition) and their ef fi ciency measured through data envelopment analysis (DEA). Using a general panel data regression model, we found that board size negatively affects the ef fi ciency of water utilities. Moreover, the presence of directors with political af fi liations or who are/were members of local or national go- vernment negatively affects ef fi ciency, and the presence of directors with a degree on the board has a slight negative effect on productivity. Conversely, other variables (ownership, gender diversity and average age of board members) were found not to affect the ef fi ciency of Italian water utilities. The existence of economies of scale was also confirmed .Este artículo analiza la relación entre el gobierno corporativo de los servicios del agua italianos (propiedad, tamaño y composición del consejo) y su e fi ciencia medida a través del análisis envolvente de datos (AED). Usando un modelo general de regresión de datos de panel averiguamos que el tamaño del consejo afecta negativamente la e fi ciencia de los servicios del agua. Además, la presencia de directores con a fi liaciones políticas o que son o fueron miembros del gobierno local o nacional afecta negativamente a la e fi ciencia, y la presencia de directores con una carrera universitaria en el consejo tiene un efecto ligeramente negativo sobre la productividad. Inversamente, otras variables (propiedad, diversidad de género y edad media de los miembros del consejo) no afectan a la e fi ciencia de los servicios del agua italianos. La existencia de economías de escala también fue con fi rmada

    Metagenomic analysis through the extended Burrows-Wheeler transform

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    Background: The development of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has had a major impact on the study of genetic sequences. Among problems that researchers in the field have to face, one of the most challenging is the taxonomic classification of metagenomic reads, i.e., identifying the microorganisms that are present in a sample collected directly from the environment. The analysis of environmental samples (metagenomes) are particularly important to figure out the microbial composition of different ecosystems and it is used in a wide variety of fields: for instance, metagenomic studies in agriculture can help understanding the interactions between plants and microbes, or in ecology, they can provide valuable insights into the functions of environmental communities. Results: In this paper, we describe a new lightweight alignment-free and assembly-free framework for metagenomic classification that compares each unknown sequence in the sample to a collection of known genomes. We take advantage of the combinatorial properties of an extension of the Burrows-Wheeler transform, and we sequentially scan the required data structures, so that we can analyze unknown sequences of large collections using little internal memory. The tool LiME (Lightweight Metagenomics via eBWT) is available at https://github.com/veronicaguerrini/LiME. Conclusions: In order to assess the reliability of our approach, we run several experiments on NGS data from two simulated metagenomes among those provided in benchmarking analysis and on a real metagenome from the Human Microbiome Project. The experiment results on the simulated data show that LiME is competitive with the widely used taxonomic classifiers. It achieves high levels of precision and specificity - e.g. 99.9% of the positive control reads are correctly assigned and the percentage of classified reads of the negative control is less than 0.01% - while keeping a high sensitivity. On the real metagenome, we show that LiME is able to deliver classification results comparable to that of MagicBlast. Overall, the experiments confirm the effectiveness of our method and its high accuracy even in negative control samples

    CAIMAN Experiment

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    Non-acoustic detection systems can be used in combination with Sonar systems to determine the presence of an underwater threat, such as terrorist divers. The goal of the CAIMAN (Coastal Anti Intruders MAgnetometers Network) joint experiment (Italian Navy, NATO Undersea Research Centre and INGV Marine Geophysics) is the application of High Definition Geophysics Magnetic techniques in a port protection scenario, where conventional measurements of very low magnetic sources, like intruder swimmers, are strongly disturbed by ambient, natural and artificial, background noise and other time-variant magnetic anomalies. Two tri-axial fluxgate magnetometers were deployed on the sea bottom and connected to a shore side measurement station. A team of navy divers, wearing both COTS and EOD equipment, performed some coastal approach runs on each magnetometer alternatively. Magnetic signature data were logged and post processed using MATLAB®. Results demonstrated the effectiveness of high definition time reduction techniques using a self-referred integrated array design

    The Highly Miniaturised Radiation Monitor

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    We present the design and preliminary calibration results of a novel highly miniaturised particle radiation monitor (HMRM) for spacecraft use. The HMRM device comprises a telescopic configuration of active pixel sensors enclosed in a titanium shield, with an estimated total mass of 52 g and volume of 15 cm3^3. The monitor is intended to provide real-time dosimetry and identification of energetic charged particles in fluxes of up to 108^8 cm2^{-2} s1^{-1} (omnidirectional). Achieving this capability with such a small instrument could open new prospects for radiation detection in space.Comment: 17 pages, 15 figure
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