4,403 research outputs found

    A 24-GHz CMOS Front-End

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    This paper reports the first 24-GHz CMOS front-end in a 0.18-µm process. It consists of a low-noise amplifier (LNA) and a mixer and downconverts an RF input at 24GHz to an IF of 5 GHz. It has a power gain of 27.5 dB and an overall noise figure of 7.7 dB with an input return loss, S[sub]11 of 21 dB consuming 20 mA from a 1.5-V supply. The LNA achieves a power gain of 15 dB and a noise figure of 6 dB on 16 mA of dc current. The LNA’s input stage utilizes a common-gate with resistive feedthrough topology. The performance analysis of this topology predicts the experimental results with good accuracy

    A Fully Integrated 24-GHz Eight-Element Phased-Array Receiver in Silicon

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    This paper reports the first fully integrated 24-GHz eight-element phased-array receiver in a SiGe BiCMOS technology. The receiver utilizes a heterodyne topology and the signal combining is performed at an IF of 4.8 GHz. The phase-shifting with 4 bits of resolution is realized at the LO port of the first down-conversion mixer. A ring LC voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) generates 16 different phases of the LO. An integrated 19.2-GHz frequency synthesizer locks the VCO frequency to a 75-MHz external reference. Each signal path achieves a gain of 43 dB, a noise figure of 7.4 dB, and an IIP3 of -11 dBm. The eight-path array achieves an array gain of 61 dB and a peak-to-null ratio of 20 dB and improves the signal-to-noise ratio at the output by 9 dB

    A 24-GHz SiGe Phased-Array Receiver—LO Phase-Shifting Approach

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    A local-oscillator phase-shifting approach is introduced to implement a fully integrated 24-GHz phased-array receiver using an SiGe technology. Sixteen phases of the local oscillator are generated in one oscillator core, resulting in a raw beam-forming accuracy of 4 bits. These phases are distributed to all eight receiving paths of the array by a symmetric network. The appropriate phase for each path is selected using high-frequency analog multiplexers. The raw beam-steering resolution of the array is better than 10 [degrees] for a forward-looking angle, while the array spatial selectivity, without any amplitude correction, is better than 20 dB. The overall gain of the array is 61 dB, while the array improves the input signal-to-noise ratio by 9 dB

    Integrated phased array systems in silicon

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    Silicon offers a new set of possibilities and challenges for RF, microwave, and millimeter-wave applications. While the high cutoff frequencies of the SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors and the ever-shrinking feature sizes of MOSFETs hold a lot of promise, new design techniques need to be devised to deal with the realities of these technologies, such as low breakdown voltages, lossy substrates, low-Q passives, long interconnect parasitics, and high-frequency coupling issues. As an example of complete system integration in silicon, this paper presents the first fully integrated 24-GHz eight-element phased array receiver in 0.18-μm silicon-germanium and the first fully integrated 24-GHz four-element phased array transmitter with integrated power amplifiers in 0.18-μm CMOS. The transmitter and receiver are capable of beam forming and can be used for communication, ranging, positioning, and sensing applications

    A 77-GHz Phased-Array Transceiver With On-Chip Antennas in Silicon: Receiver and Antennas

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    In this paper, we present the receiver and the on-chip antenna sections of a fully integrated 77-GHz four-element phased-array transceiver with on-chip antennas in silicon. The receiver section of the chip includes the complete down-conversion path comprising low-noise amplifier (LNA), frequency synthesizer, phase rotators, combining amplifiers, and on-chip dipole antennas. The signal combining is performed using a novel distributed active combining amplifier at an IF of 26 GHz. In the LO path, the output of the 52-GHz VCO is routed to different elements and can be phase shifted locally by the phase rotators. A silicon lens on the backside is used to reduce the loss due to the surface-wave power of the silicon substrate. Our measurements show a single-element LNA gain of 23 dB and a noise figure of 6.0 dB. Each of the four receive paths has a gain of 37 dB and a noise figure of 8.0 dB. Each on-chip antenna has a gain of +2 dBi