182 research outputs found

    An experimental study of three programed methods

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    All programed training makes use of successively presented units of information, usually accompanied by a test question and usually providing the subject with. immediate knowledge of whether his answer is right or wrong. The purpose of a program whose assimilated data is in questions and answers is to shape a series of responses into a complex act. Within this common framework there is--for psychologists, at any rate--a difference between two schools of thought which dominates the field and is reflected in the tasks and types of programs given to the trainee. The question now becomes one in determining the best way to intergrate programed instruction with the regular training programs . In order to help substantiate or refute the past experiments in this area, it is the purpose of this experiment to test three programed methods: 1. Use program with machine; write out answer; read correct answer. 2. Use program with machine; read correct answer. 3. Read programed material-- retype in magazine form. It is predicted that there is no significant difference in the training effectiveness of the three methods of programed instructional material

    Genetic risk for autism spectrum disorders and neuropsychiatric variation in the general population

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    Almost all genetic risk factors for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) can be found in the general population, but the effects of that risk are unclear in people not ascertained for neuropsychiatric symptoms. Using several large ASD consortia and population based resources, we find genetic links between ASDs and typical variation in social behavior and adaptive functioning. This finding is evidenced through both inherited and de novo variation, indicating that multiple types of genetic risk for ASDs influence a continuum of behavioral and developmental traits, the severe tail of which can result in an ASD or other neuropsychiatric disorder diagnosis. A continuum model should inform the design and interpretation of studies of neuropsychiatric disease biology

    A C=O⋅⋅⋅Isothiouronium Interaction Dictates Enantiodiscrimination in Acylative Kinetic Resolutions of Tertiary Heterocyclic Alcohols

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    The research leading to these results has received funding from the ERC under the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013)/E.R.C. grant agreement n° 279850 and the EPSRC (EP/J500549/1). A.D.S. thanks the Royal Society for a Wolfson Research Merit Award. P.H.-Y.C. is the Bert and Emelyn Christensen Professor and gratefully acknowledges financial support from the Stone Family of OSU. Financial support from the National Science Foundation (NSF) (CHE-1352663) is acknowledged. D.M.W. acknowledges the Bruce Graham and Johnson Fellowships of OSU. D.M.W. and P.H.-Y.C. acknowledge computing infrastructure in part provided by the NSF Phase-2 CCI, Center for Sustainable Materials Chemistry (CHE-1102637).A combination of experimental and computational studies have identified a C=O•••isothiouronium interaction as key to efficient enantiodiscrimination in the kinetic resolution of tertiary heterocyclic alcohols bearing up to three potential recognition motifs at the stereogenic tertiary carbinol center. This discrimination was exploited in the isothiourea-catalyzed acylative kinetic resolution of tertiary heterocyclic alcohols (38 examples, s factors up to > 200). The reaction proceeds at low catalyst loadings (generally 1 mol %) with either isobutyric or acetic anhydride as the acylating agent under mild conditionsPostprintPeer reviewe

    Current understanding in climbing psychophysiology research

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    The sport of rock climbing places a significant physiological and psychological load on participants. Psychophysiological analysis provides a unique insight into affective states arising from the demands of climbing, and the impact that they have on performance. This review provides an overview of climbing psychophysiology research completed to date. To summarise, an on-sight lead ascent of a route elicits the greatest psychophysiological response in climbers; whilst, a red-point top-rope ascent produces the least. The affects of climbing stimuli on an individual’s performance appear to be conditional on their experience. In general, experienced climbers show superior performance and are less anxious than their less practiced counterparts, with significantly lower cognitive and somatic anxiety, increased self-confidence and lower values of the steroid stress hormone cortisol. It is likely that the experience-stressor-performance relationship is due to advanced climbers’ greater understanding of the risks associated with the sport, their habituation to the stressors gained through practice and their ability to perform well with higher levels of anxiety. This review outlines pertinent psychological climbing stimuli, summarise current methodologies and presents a detailed review of climbing psychophysiology research. It also concludes with suggestions for improving the depth and breadth of future research, including the need for the refinement of existing measures

    The Monarch Initiative in 2019: an integrative data and analytic platform connecting phenotypes to genotypes across species.

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    In biology and biomedicine, relating phenotypic outcomes with genetic variation and environmental factors remains a challenge: patient phenotypes may not match known diseases, candidate variants may be in genes that haven\u27t been characterized, research organisms may not recapitulate human or veterinary diseases, environmental factors affecting disease outcomes are unknown or undocumented, and many resources must be queried to find potentially significant phenotypic associations. The Monarch Initiative (https://monarchinitiative.org) integrates information on genes, variants, genotypes, phenotypes and diseases in a variety of species, and allows powerful ontology-based search. We develop many widely adopted ontologies that together enable sophisticated computational analysis, mechanistic discovery and diagnostics of Mendelian diseases. Our algorithms and tools are widely used to identify animal models of human disease through phenotypic similarity, for differential diagnostics and to facilitate translational research. Launched in 2015, Monarch has grown with regards to data (new organisms, more sources, better modeling); new API and standards; ontologies (new Mondo unified disease ontology, improvements to ontologies such as HPO and uPheno); user interface (a redesigned website); and community development. Monarch data, algorithms and tools are being used and extended by resources such as GA4GH and NCATS Translator, among others, to aid mechanistic discovery and diagnostics

    Children must be protected from the tobacco industry's marketing tactics.

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    Case Reports1. A Late Presentation of Loeys-Dietz Syndrome: Beware of TGFβ Receptor Mutations in Benign Joint Hypermobility

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    Background: Thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA) and dissections are not uncommon causes of sudden death in young adults. Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is a rare, recently described, autosomal dominant, connective tissue disease characterized by aggressive arterial aneurysms, resulting from mutations in the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) receptor genes TGFBR1 and TGFBR2. Mean age at death is 26.1 years, most often due to aortic dissection. We report an unusually late presentation of LDS, diagnosed following elective surgery in a female with a long history of joint hypermobility. Methods: A 51-year-old Caucasian lady complained of chest pain and headache following a dural leak from spinal anaesthesia for an elective ankle arthroscopy. CT scan and echocardiography demonstrated a dilated aortic root and significant aortic regurgitation. MRA demonstrated aortic tortuosity, an infrarenal aortic aneurysm and aneurysms in the left renal and right internal mammary arteries. She underwent aortic root repair and aortic valve replacement. She had a background of long-standing joint pains secondary to hypermobility, easy bruising, unusual fracture susceptibility and mild bronchiectasis. She had one healthy child age 32, after which she suffered a uterine prolapse. Examination revealed mild Marfanoid features. Uvula, skin and ophthalmological examination was normal. Results: Fibrillin-1 testing for Marfan syndrome (MFS) was negative. Detection of a c.1270G > C (p.Gly424Arg) TGFBR2 mutation confirmed the diagnosis of LDS. Losartan was started for vascular protection. Conclusions: LDS is a severe inherited vasculopathy that usually presents in childhood. It is characterized by aortic root dilatation and ascending aneurysms. There is a higher risk of aortic dissection compared with MFS. Clinical features overlap with MFS and Ehlers Danlos syndrome Type IV, but differentiating dysmorphogenic features include ocular hypertelorism, bifid uvula and cleft palate. Echocardiography and MRA or CT scanning from head to pelvis is recommended to establish the extent of vascular involvement. Management involves early surgical intervention, including early valve-sparing aortic root replacement, genetic counselling and close monitoring in pregnancy. Despite being caused by loss of function mutations in either TGFβ receptor, paradoxical activation of TGFβ signalling is seen, suggesting that TGFβ antagonism may confer disease modifying effects similar to those observed in MFS. TGFβ antagonism can be achieved with angiotensin antagonists, such as Losartan, which is able to delay aortic aneurysm development in preclinical models and in patients with MFS. Our case emphasizes the importance of timely recognition of vasculopathy syndromes in patients with hypermobility and the need for early surgical intervention. It also highlights their heterogeneity and the potential for late presentation. Disclosures: The authors have declared no conflicts of interes

    Association of Low-Frequency and Rare Coding-Sequence Variants with Blood Lipids and Coronary Heart Disease in 56,000 Whites and Blacks

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    Low-frequency coding DNA sequence variants in the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 gene (PCSK9) lower plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), protect against risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), and have prompted the development of a new class of therapeutics. It is uncertain whether the PCSK9 example represents a paradigm or an isolated exception. We used the “Exome Array” to genotype >200,000 low-frequency and rare coding sequence variants across the genome in 56,538 individuals (42,208 European ancestry [EA] and 14,330 African ancestry [AA]) and tested these variants for association with LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides. Although we did not identify new genes associated with LDL-C, we did identify four low-frequency (frequencies between 0.1% and 2%) variants (ANGPTL8 rs145464906 [c.361C>T; p.Gln121∗], PAFAH1B2 rs186808413 [c.482C>T; p.Ser161Leu], COL18A1 rs114139997 [c.331G>A; p.Gly111Arg], and PCSK7 rs142953140 [c.1511G>A; p.Arg504His]) with large effects on HDL-C and/or triglycerides. None of these four variants was associated with risk for CHD, suggesting that examples of low-frequency coding variants with robust effects on both lipids and CHD will be limited
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