666 research outputs found

    The Wavelet Trie: Maintaining an Indexed Sequence of Strings in Compressed Space

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    An indexed sequence of strings is a data structure for storing a string sequence that supports random access, searching, range counting and analytics operations, both for exact matches and prefix search. String sequences lie at the core of column-oriented databases, log processing, and other storage and query tasks. In these applications each string can appear several times and the order of the strings in the sequence is relevant. The prefix structure of the strings is relevant as well: common prefixes are sought in strings to extract interesting features from the sequence. Moreover, space-efficiency is highly desirable as it translates directly into higher performance, since more data can fit in fast memory. We introduce and study the problem of compressed indexed sequence of strings, representing indexed sequences of strings in nearly-optimal compressed space, both in the static and dynamic settings, while preserving provably good performance for the supported operations. We present a new data structure for this problem, the Wavelet Trie, which combines the classical Patricia Trie with the Wavelet Tree, a succinct data structure for storing a compressed sequence. The resulting Wavelet Trie smoothly adapts to a sequence of strings that changes over time. It improves on the state-of-the-art compressed data structures by supporting a dynamic alphabet (i.e. the set of distinct strings) and prefix queries, both crucial requirements in the aforementioned applications, and on traditional indexes by reducing space occupancy to close to the entropy of the sequence

    On the Complexity of Exact Pattern Matching in Graphs: Binary Strings and Bounded Degree

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    Exact pattern matching in labeled graphs is the problem of searching paths of a graph G=(V,E)G=(V,E) that spell the same string as the pattern P[1..m]P[1..m]. This basic problem can be found at the heart of more complex operations on variation graphs in computational biology, of query operations in graph databases, and of analysis operations in heterogeneous networks, where the nodes of some paths must match a sequence of labels or types. We describe a simple conditional lower bound that, for any constant ϵ>0\epsilon>0, an O(E1ϵm)O(|E|^{1 - \epsilon} \, m)-time or an O(Em1ϵ)O(|E| \, m^{1 - \epsilon})-time algorithm for exact pattern matching on graphs, with node labels and patterns drawn from a binary alphabet, cannot be achieved unless the Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis (SETH) is false. The result holds even if restricted to undirected graphs of maximum degree three or directed acyclic graphs of maximum sum of indegree and outdegree three. Although a conditional lower bound of this kind can be somehow derived from previous results (Backurs and Indyk, FOCS'16), we give a direct reduction from SETH for dissemination purposes, as the result might interest researchers from several areas, such as computational biology, graph database, and graph mining, as mentioned before. Indeed, as approximate pattern matching on graphs can be solved in O(Em)O(|E|\,m) time, exact and approximate matching are thus equally hard (quadratic time) on graphs under the SETH assumption. In comparison, the same problems restricted to strings have linear time vs quadratic time solutions, respectively, where the latter ones have a matching SETH lower bound on computing the edit distance of two strings (Backurs and Indyk, STOC'15).Comment: Using Lemma 12 and Lemma 13 might to be enough to prove Lemma 14. However, the proof of Lemma 14 is correct if you assume that the graph used in the reduction is a DAG. Hence, since the problem is already quadratic for a DAG and a binary alphabet, it has to be quadratic also for a general graph and a binary alphabe

    Round-Hashing for Data Storage: Distributed Servers and External-Memory Tables

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    This paper proposes round-hashing, which is suitable for data storage on distributed servers and for implementing external-memory tables in which each lookup retrieves at most one single block of external memory, using a stash. For data storage, round-hashing is like consistent hashing as it avoids a full rehashing of the keys when new servers are added. Experiments show that the speed to serve requests is tenfold or more than the state of the art. In distributed data storage, this guarantees better throughput for serving requests and, moreover, greatly reduces decision times for which data should move to new servers as rescanning data is much faster

    String Synchronizing Sets: Sublinear-Time BWT Construction and Optimal LCE Data Structure

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    Burrows-Wheeler transform (BWT) is an invertible text transformation that, given a text TT of length nn, permutes its symbols according to the lexicographic order of suffixes of TT. BWT is one of the most heavily studied algorithms in data compression with numerous applications in indexing, sequence analysis, and bioinformatics. Its construction is a bottleneck in many scenarios, and settling the complexity of this task is one of the most important unsolved problems in sequence analysis that has remained open for 25 years. Given a binary string of length nn, occupying O(n/logn)O(n/\log n) machine words, the BWT construction algorithm due to Hon et al. (SIAM J. Comput., 2009) runs in O(n)O(n) time and O(n/logn)O(n/\log n) space. Recent advancements (Belazzougui, STOC 2014, and Munro et al., SODA 2017) focus on removing the alphabet-size dependency in the time complexity, but they still require Ω(n)\Omega(n) time. In this paper, we propose the first algorithm that breaks the O(n)O(n)-time barrier for BWT construction. Given a binary string of length nn, our procedure builds the Burrows-Wheeler transform in O(n/logn)O(n/\sqrt{\log n}) time and O(n/logn)O(n/\log n) space. We complement this result with a conditional lower bound proving that any further progress in the time complexity of BWT construction would yield faster algorithms for the very well studied problem of counting inversions: it would improve the state-of-the-art O(mlogm)O(m\sqrt{\log m})-time solution by Chan and P\v{a}tra\c{s}cu (SODA 2010). Our algorithm is based on a novel concept of string synchronizing sets, which is of independent interest. As one of the applications, we show that this technique lets us design a data structure of the optimal size O(n/logn)O(n/\log n) that answers Longest Common Extension queries (LCE queries) in O(1)O(1) time and, furthermore, can be deterministically constructed in the optimal O(n/logn)O(n/\log n) time.Comment: Full version of a paper accepted to STOC 201

    Managing Unbounded-Length Keys in Comparison-Driven Data Structures with Applications to On-Line Indexing

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    This paper presents a general technique for optimally transforming any dynamic data structure that operates on atomic and indivisible keys by constant-time comparisons, into a data structure that handles unbounded-length keys whose comparison cost is not a constant. Examples of these keys are strings, multi-dimensional points, multiple-precision numbers, multi-key data (e.g.~records), XML paths, URL addresses, etc. The technique is more general than what has been done in previous work as no particular exploitation of the underlying structure of is required. The only requirement is that the insertion of a key must identify its predecessor or its successor. Using the proposed technique, online suffix tree can be constructed in worst case time O(logn)O(\log n) per input symbol (as opposed to amortized O(logn)O(\log n) time per symbol, achieved by previously known algorithms). To our knowledge, our algorithm is the first that achieves O(logn)O(\log n) worst case time per input symbol. Searching for a pattern of length mm in the resulting suffix tree takes O(min(mlogΣ,m+logn)+tocc)O(\min(m\log |\Sigma|, m + \log n) + tocc) time, where tocctocc is the number of occurrences of the pattern. The paper also describes more applications and show how to obtain alternative methods for dealing with suffix sorting, dynamic lowest common ancestors and order maintenance

    Compressed Suffix Arrays and Suffix Trees with Applications to Text Indexing and String Matching

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    AMS subject classifications. 68W05, 68Q25, 68P05, 68P10, 68P30 DOI. 10.1137/S0097539702402354The proliferation of online text, such as found on the World Wide Web and in online databases, motivates the need for space-efficient text indexing methods that support fast string searching. We model this scenario as follows: Consider a text T consisting of n symbols drawn from a fixed alphabet Σ. The text T can be represented in n lg |Σ| bits by encoding each symbol with lg |Σ| bits. The goal is to support fast online queries for searching any string pattern P of m symbols, with T being fully scanned only once, namely, when the index is created at preprocessing time. The text indexing schemes published in the literature are greedy in terms of space usage: they require Ω(n lg n) additional bits of space in the worst case. For example, in the standard unit cost RAM, suffix trees and suffix arrays need Ω(n) memory words, each of Ω(lg n) bits. These indexes are larger than the text itself by a multiplicative factor of Ω(lg|Σ| n), which is significant when Σ is of constant size, such as in ascii or unicode. On the other hand, these indexes support fast searching, either in O(mlg |Σ|) time or in O(m+lg n) time, plus an output-sensitive cost O(occ) for listing the occ pattern occurrences. We present a new text index that is based upon compressed representations of suffix arrays and suffix trees. It achieves a fast O(m/lg|Σ| n + lg | Σ| n) search time in the worst case, for any constant 0 < ≤ 1, using at most −1 + O(1) n lg |Σ| bits of storage. Our result thus presents for the first time an efficient index whose size is provably linear in the size of the text in the worst case, and for many scenarios, the space is actually sublinear in practice. As a concrete example, the compressed suffix array for a typical 100 MB ascii file can require 30–40 MB or less, while the raw suffix array requires 500 MB. Our theoretical bounds improve both time and space of previous indexing schemes. Listing the pattern occurrences introduces a sublogarithmic slowdown factor in the output-sensitive cost, giving O(occ lg | Σ| n) time as a result. When the patterns are sufficiently long, we can use auxiliary data structures in O(n lg |Σ|) bits to obtain a total search bound of O(m/lg|Σ| n + occ) time, which is optimal