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    Electronically Stored Information: Balancing Free Discovery With Limits on Abuse

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    The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (the Rules) have long sought to limit abuses that developed under the traditional presumption favoring free discovery. The 2006 amendments to the Rules are specifically aimed at curbing abuses associated with electronically stored information (ESI), which has become the basic medium of business communications and has provided businesses with overall productivity benefits. The 2006 amendments introduce a new category of electronic evidence that is not reasonably accessible and allow a court to shift the related costs of discovery to the party requesting the information. Cost-shifting, however, creates an incentive for businesses to shelter sensitive data by making it not reasonably accessible. This iBrief argues that the current tests created by the courts for cost-shifting should be reassessed and should include a benefit-shifting component that offsets business savings from using ESI as a storage medium. Rather than treating ESI as exceptional, the Rules should adopt a uniform approach that curbs abuses of all discovery

    Proper seed storage (Liveseed Practice abstract)

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    What causes seed ageing? Seed ageing is caused by oxidation of the cell membranes, mitochondria, DNA, RNA and proteins in the seeds. This oxidation is stimulated by four factors: seed moisture level, temperature, oxygen and time. The main factors stimulating this ageing are moisture and oxygen. How to reduce ageing Keep sealed commercial seed packages closed until use, to avoid moisture uptake from the air. Never store an open package in a cold place like a refrigerator, were the humidity is high and the seeds will absorb moisture. If not all seeds are used, store the remainder in a dry environment. For this we developed an easy system with a ‘seed drying and storage box’ (Fig 2). The principle is an airtight transparent box. In the box is a bag with silica gel and a relative humidity (RH) meter. The optimal RH is between 20 and 40%. Home produced seeds can also be dried in the box. If the RH surpasses the 40%, the silica gel needs to be regenerated in an oven at 100 °C. The dried silica gel can be cooled down in a closed clean jam jar or alike. It is possible to store the airtight box with seeds in a cooler place, to reduce ageing further. For larger amount of seeds the box could be replaced by a large vacuum bag, as available for storage of clothes