235 research outputs found

    Impact of broad-specification fuels on future jet aircraft

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    The effects that broad specification fuels have on airframe and engine components were discussed along with the improvements in component technology required to use broad specification fuels without sacrificing performance, reliability, maintainability, or safety

    Alternative aircraft fuels

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    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel, and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. The effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications are discussed

    Impact of future fuel properties on aircraft engines and fuel systems

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    This paper describes and discusses the propulsion-system problems that will most likely be encountered if the specifications of hydrocarbon-based jet fuels must undergo significant changes in the future and, correspondingly, the advances in technology that will be required to minimize the adverse impact of these problems. Several investigations conducted are summarized. Illustrations are used to describe the relative effects of selected fuel properties on the behavior of propulsion-system components and fuel systems. The selected fuel properties are those that are most likely to be relaxed in future fuel specifications. Illustrations are also used to describe technological advances that may be needed in the future. Finally, the technological areas needing the most attention are described, and programs that are under way to address these needs are briefly discussed

    Simulated afterburner performance with hydrogen peroxide injection for thrust augmentation

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    Combustion performance of three afterburner configurations was evaluated at simulated altitude flight conditions with liquid augmentation to the primary combustor. Afterburner combustion efficiency and stability were better with injection of high-strength hydrogen peroxide than with no injection or with water injection. Improvements were observed in afterburner configurations with and without flameholders and in a short-length afterburner. At a peroxide-air ratio of 0.3, combustion was stable and 85 to 90 percent efficient in all configurations tested. Calculated augmented net-thrust ratios for peroxide injection with afterburning were approximately 60 percent greater than those for water injection

    Surface characterization and surface electronic structure of organic quasi-one-dimensional charge transfer salts

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    We have thoroughly characterized the surfaces of the organic charge-transfer salts TTF-TCNQ and (TMTSF)2PF6 which are generally acknowledged as prototypical examples of one-dimensional conductors. In particular x-ray induced photoemission spectroscopy turns out to be a valuable non-destructive diagnostic tool. We show that the observation of generic one-dimensional signatures in photoemission spectra of the valence band close to the Fermi level can be strongly affected by surface effects. Especially, great care must be exercised taking evidence for an unusual one-dimensional many-body state exclusively from the observation of a pseudogap.Comment: 11 pages, 12 figures, v2: minor changes in text and figure labellin

    Null Energy Condition Violation and Classical Stability in the Bianchi I Metric

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    The stability of isotropic cosmological solutions in the Bianchi I model is considered. We prove that the stability of isotropic solutions in the Bianchi I metric for a positive Hubble parameter follows from their stability in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric. This result is applied to models inspired by string field theory, which violate the null energy condition. Examples of stable isotropic solutions are presented. We also consider the k-essence model and analyse the stability of solutions of the form Φ(t)=t\Phi(t)=t.Comment: 27 pages, references added, accepted for publication in Phys. Rev.

    A risk prediction model for the assessment and triage of women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in low-resourced settings: the miniPIERS (Pre-eclampsia Integrated Estimate of RiSk) multi-country prospective cohort study.

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    BACKGROUND: Pre-eclampsia/eclampsia are leading causes of maternal mortality and morbidity, particularly in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs). We developed the miniPIERS risk prediction model to provide a simple, evidence-based tool to identify pregnant women in LMICs at increased risk of death or major hypertensive-related complications. METHODS AND FINDINGS: From 1 July 2008 to 31 March 2012, in five LMICs, data were collected prospectively on 2,081 women with any hypertensive disorder of pregnancy admitted to a participating centre. Candidate predictors collected within 24 hours of admission were entered into a step-wise backward elimination logistic regression model to predict a composite adverse maternal outcome within 48 hours of admission. Model internal validation was accomplished by bootstrapping and external validation was completed using data from 1,300 women in the Pre-eclampsia Integrated Estimate of RiSk (fullPIERS) dataset. Predictive performance was assessed for calibration, discrimination, and stratification capacity. The final miniPIERS model included: parity (nulliparous versus multiparous); gestational age on admission; headache/visual disturbances; chest pain/dyspnoea; vaginal bleeding with abdominal pain; systolic blood pressure; and dipstick proteinuria. The miniPIERS model was well-calibrated and had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC ROC) of 0.768 (95% CI 0.735-0.801) with an average optimism of 0.037. External validation AUC ROC was 0.713 (95% CI 0.658-0.768). A predicted probability ≥25% to define a positive test classified women with 85.5% accuracy. Limitations of this study include the composite outcome and the broad inclusion criteria of any hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. This broad approach was used to optimize model generalizability. CONCLUSIONS: The miniPIERS model shows reasonable ability to identify women at increased risk of adverse maternal outcomes associated with the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. It could be used in LMICs to identify women who would benefit most from interventions such as magnesium sulphate, antihypertensives, or transportation to a higher level of care

    The "silver" Japanese quail and the MITF gene: causal mutation, associated traits and homology with the "blue" chicken plumage

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The <it>MITF </it>(<it>microphthalmia-associated transcription factor</it>) gene has been investigated in mice and various vertebrates but its variations and associated effects have not yet been explored much in birds. The present study describes the causal mutation <it>B </it>at the <it>MITF </it>gene responsible for the "silver" plumage colour in the Japanese quail (<it>Coturnix japonica</it>), and its associated effects on growth and body composition, and tests its allelism with the "blue" plumage colour mutation <it>Bl </it>in <it>Gallus gallus</it>.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The semi dominant <it>B </it>mutation results from a premature stop codon caused by a 2 bp deletion in exon 11 of <it>MITF</it>. Homozygous "white" (<it>B/B</it>) quail which have a white plumage also show a slightly lower growth, lower body temperature, smaller heart, and lighter <it>pectoralis </it>muscles but more abdominal adipose tissue than the recessive homozygous "wild-type" (<it>+/+</it>) and heterozygous "silver" (<it>B/+</it>) quail. Similar observations on cardiac and body growth were made on mice (<it>Mus musculus</it>) homozygous for mutations at <it>MITF</it>. The production of chicken-quail hybrids with a white plumage obtained by crossing <it>Bl/+ </it>chicken heterozygous for the <it>blue </it>mutation with <it>B/B </it>white quail indicated that the mutations were allelic.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>The "silver" Japanese quail is an interesting model for the comparative study of the effects of <it>MITF </it>in birds and mammals. Further investigation using a chicken family segregating for the "blue" plumage and molecular data will be needed to confirm if the "blue" plumage in chicken results from a mutation in <it>MITF</it>.</p