14 research outputs found

    Spin-cobordism and fermionic d=2 anomalies

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    The aim of this work is to improve our description of global anomalies and the tools we have at our disposal for their computation. In particular, we focus on general fermionic quantum field theories with a global finite group symmetry G^f in 2-dimensions, with a special regard for the torus spacetime. The modular transformation properties of the family of partition functions with different backgrounds is determined by the ’t Hooft anomaly of G^f. For a general G^f, possibly non-abelian or twisted, we provide a method to determine the modular transformations directly from the bulk 3d invertible topological quantum field theory (iTQFT) corresponding to the anomaly by inflow. We also describe a method of evaluating the character map from the real representation ring of G^f to the group which classifies anomalies. Physically the value of the map is given by the anomaly of free fermions in a given representation. We assume classification of the anomalies/iTQFTs by spin-cobordisms. As a byproduct, we provide explicit combinatorial expressions for corresponding spin-bordism invariants of abelian symmetry groups G^f in terms of surgery representation of arbitrary closed spin 3-manifolds. As an application, we compute the constraints that ’t Hooft anomaly puts on the spectrum of infrared conformal field theories for various symmetry groups. In particular, we provide a first of such analysis for discrete non-abelians G^f or with a non-trivial twist of the Z_2^f subgroup

    Spin-cobordisms, surgeries and fermionic modular bootstrap

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    We consider general fermionic quantum field theories with a global finite group symmetry GG, focusing on the case of 2-dimensions and torus spacetime. The modular transformation properties of the family of partition functions with different backgrounds is determined by the 't Hooft anomaly of GG and fermion parity. For a general possibly non-abelian GG we provide a method to determine the modular transformations directly from the bulk 3d invertible topological quantum field theory (iTQFT) corresponding to the anomaly by inflow. We also describe a method of evaluating the character map from the real representation ring of GG to the group which classifies anomalies. Physically the value of the map is given by the anomaly of free fermions in a given representation. We assume classification of the anomalies/iTQFTs by spin-cobordisms. As a byproduct, for all abelian symmetry groups GG, we provide explicit combinatorial expressions for corresponding spin-bordism invariants in terms of surgery representation of arbitrary closed spin 3-manifolds. We work out the case of G=Z2G=\mathbb{Z}_2 in detail, and, as an application, we consider the constraints that 't Hooft anomaly puts on the spectrum of the infrared conformal field theory.Comment: 86 pages, 27 figure

    Higher representations for extended operators

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    It is known that local operators in quantum field theory transform in representations of ordinary global symmetry groups. The purpose of this paper is to generalise this statement to extended operators such as line and surface defects. We explain that (n−1)(n-1)-dimensional operators transform in nn-representations of a finite nn-group symmetry and thoroughly explore this statement for n=1,2,3n = 1,2,3. We therefore propose higher representation theory as the natural framework to describe the action of symmetries on the extended operator content in quantum field theory.Comment: 60 pages + appendi

    The Determinants of Health-Related Quality of Life in a Sample of Primary School Children: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

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    Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in childhood is a multidimensional construct with many sub dimensions of subjective experience, including physical activity (PA), psychological well-being, social interaction, and school performance, that represents a fundamental health outcome to assess a child’s physical and psycho-social functioning. Our study aims to explore the potential predictors of children’s health-related quality of life, using a convenience sample from the Imola Active Break Study (I-MOVE), considering demographic, anthropometric measures, PA level measured by Actigraph accelerometers, parent-reported/self-reported HRQoL, and body image. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted among 151 primary school children in Italy. HRQoL was assessed using the Italian version 4.0 of the Paediatric Quality of Life (PedsQL) questionnaire. Results: Children who spent more time partaking in moderate PA were associated with a higher total PedsQL score (p < 0.03). Mother’s body mass index (BMI) was the only variable statistically significant associated with the physical health domain of PedsQL. Parent’s proxy-report perception concerning children’s psychosocial health was statistically relevant. The children’s gender, age, and BMI had no association with any of the HRQoL outcomes. Discussion: Parent proxy-report psychosocial health and mother’s BMI should be considered as predictors of HRQoL for the psychosocial and physical domain. PA should be implemented in order to improve the HRQoL of primary school children

    Alpha-synuclein/synapsin III pathological interplay boosts the motor response to methylphenidate

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    : Loss of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons and fibrillary α-synuclein (α-syn) aggregation in Lewy bodies (LB) characterize Parkinson's disease (PD). We recently found that Synapsin III (Syn III), a phosphoprotein regulating dopamine (DA) release with α-syn, is another key component of LB fibrils in the brain of PD patients and acts as a crucial mediator of α-syn aggregation and toxicity. Methylphenidate (MPH), a monoamine reuptake inhibitor (MRI) efficiently counteracting freezing of gait in advanced PD patients, can bind α-syn and controls α-syn-mediated DA overflow and presynaptic compartmentalization. Interestingly, MPH results also efficient for the treatment of attention deficits and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a neurodevelopmental psychiatric syndrome associated with Syn III and α-syn polymorphisms and constituting a risk factor for the development of LB disorders. Here, we studied α-syn/Syn III co-deposition and longitudinal changes of α-syn, Syn III and DA transporter (DAT) striatal levels in nigrostriatal neurons of a PD model, the human C-terminally truncated (1-120) α-syn transgenic (SYN120 tg) mouse, in comparison with C57BL/6J wild type (wt) and C57BL/6JOlaHsd α-syn null littermates. Then, we analyzed the locomotor response of these animals to an acute administration of MPH (d-threo) and other MRIs: cocaine, that we previously found to stimulate Syn III-reliant DA release in the absence of α-syn, or the selective DAT blocker GBR-12935, along aging. Finally, we assessed whether these drugs modulate α-syn/Syn III interaction by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and performed in silico studies engendering a heuristic model of the α-syn conformations stabilized upon MPH binding. We found that only MPH was able to over-stimulate a Syn III-dependent/DAT-independent locomotor activity in the aged SYN120 tg mice showing α-syn/Syn III co-aggregates. MPH enhanced full length (fl) α-syn/Syn III and even more (1-120) α-syn/Syn III interaction in cells exhibiting α-syn/Syn III inclusions. Moreover, in silico studies confirmed that MPH may reduce α-syn fibrillation by stabilizing a protein conformation with increased lipid binding predisposition. Our observations indicate that the motor-stimulating effect of MPH can be positively fostered in the presence of α-syn/Syn III co-aggregation. This evidence holds significant implications for PD and ADHD therapeutic management

    Neuromuscular taping application in counter movement jump: biomechanical insight in a group of healthy basketball players

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    Kinesiologic elastic tape is widely used for both clinical and sport applications although its efficacy in enhancing agonistic performance is still controversial. Aim of the study was to verify in a group of healthy basketball players whether a neuromuscular taping application (NMT) on ankle and knee joints could affect the kinematic and the kinetic parameters of the jump, either by enhancing or inhibiting the functional performance. Fourteen healthy male basketball players without any ongoing pathologies at upper limbs, lower limbs and trunk volunteered in the study. They randomly performed 2 sets of 5 counter movement jumps (CMJ) with and without application of Kinesiologic tape. The best 3 jumps of each set were considered for the analysis. The Kinematics parameters analyzed were: knees maximal flexion and ankles maximal dorsiflexion during the push off phase, jump height and take off velocity. Vertical ground reaction force and maximal power expressed in the push off phase of the jump were also investigated. The NMT application in both knees and ankles showed no statistically significant differences in the kinematic and kinetic parameters and did not interfere with the CMJ performance. Bilateral NMT application in the group of healthy male basketball players did not change kinematics and kinetics jump parameters, thus suggesting that its routine use should have no negative effect on functional performance. Similarly, the combined application of the tape on both knees and ankles did not affect in either way jump performance

    Utilization of epidemiological data and local cost to make usefulness to decision maker the economic evaluations: a case study in Region Veneto.

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    Davies et al. (1), presenting the results of a survey conducted in Europe, showed that health economics assessments do not play an important role in decision-making processes. The International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) (2) investigated in 2003 the use of economic health information, they evidenced that the main issue affecting the relevance of these studies is that do not explore budgetary impact, in fact the Cost-Effectiveness-Analysis gives as information the cost-effectiveness ratio measurement indicating the value for money from a therapy, but it says nothing about total cost. On the other hand, the decision maker is often more concerned about affordability, which depends on the overall budgetary impact. The local decision maker, waiting on local community, are also interested to the impact that a new strategy have in health and social terms relevant to the population of interest with its particular epidemiological and demographic characteristics, by means a contextualised information. Mauskopf et al. (3) affirm that impact evaluations have to include a classification of the policy-maker\u2019s information needs and a full and detailed breakdown of resource uses, costs and expected results in health terms. This method, described by Mauskopf et al. and defined \u201ccost-consequence analysis\u201d, systematically sets out, and measures the value of, the variables that should be taken into consideration in health intervention decision-making. Objective: The main objective is define the methodology to calculate some indicators of intervention\u2019s effects on a local setting which are useable and useful for local decision-maker process about resource planning and management. In particular this study will evaluate the economic, health and social impact of the introduction in the Veneto region of Italy of new cancer drug, Trastuzumab a recombinant humanised monoclonal antibody that shows a high binding affinity with the Her-2/neu protein and is capable of inhibiting Her-2/neu-mediated malignant transformation of epithelial cells. We explore the indication for early breast cancer treatment, this drug intervention is in addition to standard therapy. Methods: The methodology to calculate the four useful indicator in a perspective of a decision maker is:1)TARGET POPULATION INDICATOR. The first indicator useful for decision-making purposes is the target population, that is, the number of residents who, in accordance with measures the frequency of disease like incidence and with clinical appropriateness criteria, are potential users of the innovative drug in a year. 2) HEALTH INDICATORS. The proportion of subjects saved by the therapy or proportion who receive a benefit from therapy 3) INDICATOR OF ECONOMIC IMPACT. This indicator corresponds to the net incremental cost generated by the use of the new drugs. This impact is measured considering the difference between the costs and the savings generated by the use of the new drug. 4) INDICATOR OF SOCIAL IMPACT. It was assumed that the indicators denotes the number of children saved from losing their mother by the introduction of the project. The statistical method used to work out the health-social-economic indicators will be the Markov model. This model is particularly useful for analysing events that can occur, even repeatedly, in an unspecified moment in time, such as, for example, the onset and development of a tumour. A Markov model is composed of a finite number of exhaustive and mutually exclusive states of health. From a temporal point of view, the analysis is divided into equal intervals defined Markov cycles. Markov models was implemented through cohort simulations or Monte Carlo analyses to produce a sort of trace from which it is possible to observe the movement of the cohort among the different states of health and to estimate the efficacy and overall cost associated with each of them, estimating not only mean, efficacy and cost values, but also some of the characteristics of their distribution, such as standard deviations. Markov models can all be derived from a basic model composed of the following four states of health: (1) presence of tumour; (2) presence of local relapse tumour; (3) metastasis; (4) death. A patient with a localised tumour can remain in this state or move into another state: metastasis or deceased. Death is, by definition, the \u201cstate of absorption\u201d, i.e., the state from which, once entered, it is no longer possible to move to other states. Results TARGET POPULATION INDICATOR The new cases each year of breast cancer in Region Veneto are 4209 cases, among which the new cases are in a range of 527 to 751. HEALTH INDICATORS The incremental benefit of Trastuzumab are 32 avoided died in four years. INDICATOR OF SOCIAL IMPACT 14 orphan avoided INDICATOR OF ECONOMIC IMPACT The average cost of a treated patients with Trastuzumab is 60.096 euro (range 40.874 -79.497) instead the average cost for teat a patient with standard therapy is 4644 euro ( range 9.338-33.966). The incremental cost in four years are 28.000.000. Discussion: It is clear that a public policy-maker that is enabled to appreciate clearly all the costs of a health intervention in a population will be far better equipped to negotiate with its own industrial interlocutors (providers) than it would be (or is, in many cases) in the absence of this information. At this purpose is very useful the indicator estimating the net incremental cost. Furthermore as was debate by Ann Barrett, when a institution decide to adopt a new technology, it has to provide extra funding and suggest what cuts should be made to release these extra funds. Only having this indicator it is possible to evaluate this issue

    Quantitative assessment of endomyocardial biopsy in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia: an in vitro validation of diagnostic criteria

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    AIMS: To provide a standardized endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) protocol and diagnostic quantitative parameters for arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D). The Task Force criteria for the in vivo diagnosis of ARVC/D include tissue characterization by EMB as a major criterion. METHODS AND RESULTS: EMBs were simulated in vitro with a Cordis bioptome in explanted hearts from six groups: diffuse (n = 10) and segmental (n = 10) ARVC/D, dilated cardiomyopathy (DC) (n = 10), controls (n = 10), adipositas cordis (n = 10), elderly >80 years (n = 10). Sampling sites were the RV inferior-subtricuspid, antero-apical, and mid-outflow tract (RVOT), the septum, and the left ventricle (LV). Histomorphometry was performed to evaluate the amount of myocardium and fibrous and fatty tissues. Myocyte diameters and abnormalities were also assessed. By selecting a 95% specificity, the ARVC/D diagnostic cut-offs on cumulative RV EMB samples are myocardium 31% and fat >22% (80, 50, and 50% sensitivity, respectively). By excluding elderly and obese people groups a lower cut-off for fat was found (>9%). A high variability between different RV sampling sites was observed; the antero-apical was the most informative region although fat at this level is non-specific. No useful diagnostic cut-off for fatty tissue was identified at the antero-apical and RVOT area. No significant difference was found for any tissue parameter either in septal or in LV EMB. Increased RV myocyte diameters and cytological changes were detected in ARVC/D and DC. CONCLUSION: The residual myocardium is the main diagnostic morphometric parameter in ARVC/D, whereas fat at the apex is non-specific. Sensitivity and specificity vary according to the RV region. Target sampling of the triangle of dysplasia is required, although only a single region is often informative, emphasizing the usefulness of imaging-guided EMB. There is no diagnostic value of either septal or LV EMB. Cardiomyopathic changes of the myocytes also appear important for establishing a pathological diagnosis

    alpha-Synuclein and MPTP-generated rodent models of Parkinson's disease and the study of extracellular striatal dopamine dynamics: a microdialysis approach

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    The classical animal models of Parkinson’s disease (PD) rely on the use of neurotoxins, including 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), 6-hydroxydopamine and, more recently, the agricultural chemicals paraquat and rotenone, to deplete dopamine (DA). These neurotoxins elicit motor deficits in different animal species although but, with the exception of MPTP, fails to induce a significant dopaminergic neurodegeneration in rats. In the attempt to better reproduce the key features of PD, in particular the progressive nature of neurodegeneration, alternative PD models have been developed, based on the genetic and neuropathological links between α-synuclein (α-syn) and PD. In vivo microdialysis was used to investigate extracellular striatal DA dynamics in MPTP- and α-syn-generated rodent models of PD. Acute and sub-acute MPTP intoxication of mice both induce prolonged release of striatal DA. Such DA release may be considered the first step in MPTP-induced striatal DA depletion and nigral neuron death, mainly through reactive oxygen species generation. Although MPTP induces DA reduction, neurochemical and motor recovery starts immediately after the end of treatment, suggesting that compensatory mechanisms are activated. Thus, the MPTP mouse model of PD may be unsuitable for closely reproducing the features of the human disease and predicting potential long-term therapeutic effects, in terms of both striatal extracellular DA and behavioral outcome. In contrast, the α-syn-generated rat model of PD does not suffer from a massive release of striatal DA during induction of the nigral lesion, but rather is characterized by a prolonged reduction in baseline DA and nicotine-induced increases in dialysate DA levels. These results are suggestive of a stable nigrostriatal lesion with a lack of dopaminergic neurochemical recovery. The α-syn rat model thus reproduces the initial stage and slow development of PD, with a time-dependent impairment in motor function. This article will describe the above experimental PD models and demonstrate the utility of microdialysis for their characterization

    Il senso dello sport. Valori, agonismo, inclusione

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    Lo sport rappresenta un potente veicolo formativo, capace di incidere sugli stili di vita e sulle modalitĂ  di pensiero delle persone. AffinchĂ© la lezione dello sport sia realmente positiva, Ăš perĂČ necessario che tale ruolo educativo sia riconosciuto e incoraggiato. Se ciĂČ non avviene, la pratica sportiva continua a veicolare valori, ma corre il serio rischio di favorire il diffondersi di quelli negativi. Vincere diventa cosĂŹ l'unica cosa che conta e questo apre la strada a tutta una serie di pratiche e comportamenti palesemente antisportivi, doping in primis. Il volume, dedicato al rapporto tra sport, valori e inclusione sociale, vuole contribuire alla promozione di una rinnovata cultura sportiva. A tal fine si propone di mettere al servizio di associazioni, scuole e istituzioni sportive le competenze necessarie a fare della pratica sportiva una reale occasione di crescita umana e civile
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