12,792 research outputs found

    The surface-tension-driven evolution of a two-dimensional annular viscous tube

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    We consider the evolution of an annular two-dimensional region occupied by viscous fluid driven by surface tension and applied pressure at the free surfaces. We assume that the thickness of the domain is small compared with its circumference so that it may be described as a thin viscous sheet whose ends are joined to form a closed loop. Analytical and numerical solutions of the resulting model are obtained and we show that it is well posed whether run forwards or backwards in time. This enables us to determine, in many cases explicitly, which initial shapes will evolve into a desired final shape. We also show how the application of an internal pressure may be used to control the evolution. This work is motivated by the production of non-axisymmetric capillary tubing via the Vello process. Molten glass is fed through a die and drawn off vertically, while the shape of the cross-section evolves under surface tension and any applied pressure as it flows downstream. Here the goal is to determine the die shape required to achieve a given desired final shape, typically square or rectangular. We conclude by discussing the role of our two-dimensional model in describing the three-dimensional tube-drawing process

    Mathematical modelling of non-axisymmetric capillary tube drawing

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    This paper concerns the manufacture of non-axisymmetric capillary tubing via the Velloprocess, in which molten glass is fed through a die and drawn off vertically. The shapeof the cross-section evolves under surface tension as it flows downstream. The aim is to achieve a given desired final shape, typically square or rectangular, and our goal is to determine the required die shape. We use the result that, provided the tube is slowly varying in the axial direction, each cross-section evolves like a two-dimensional Stokes flow when expressed in suitably scaled Lagrangian coordinates. This allows us to use a previously derived model for the surface- tension-driven evolution of a thin two-dimensional viscous tube. We thus obtain, and solve analytically, equations governing the axial velocity, thickness and circumference of the tube, as well as its shape. The model is extended to include non-isothermal effects

    Microfluidic immunomagnetic multi-target sorting – a model for controlling deflection of paramagnetic beads

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    We describe a microfluidic system that uses a magnetic field to sort paramagnetic beads by deflecting them in the direction normal to the flow. Our experiments systematically study the dependence of the beads’ deflection on: bead size and susceptibility, magnet strength, fluid speed and viscosity, and device geometry. We also develop a design parameter that can aid in the design of microfluidic devices for immunomagnetic multi-target sorting

    Asymptotic solutions of glass temperature profiles during steady optical fibre drawing

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    In this paper we derive realistic simplified models for the high-speed drawing of glass optical fibres via the downdraw method, that capture the fluid dynamics and heat transport in the fibre via conduction, convection and radiative heating. We exploit the small aspect ratio of the fibre and the relative orders of magnitude of the dimensionless parameters that characterize the heat transfer to reduce the problem to one- or two-dimensional systems via asymptotic analysis. The resulting equations may be readily solved numerically and in many cases admit exact analytic solutions. The systematic asymptotic breakdown presented is used to elucidate the relative importance of furnace temperature profile, convection, surface radiation and conduction in each portion of the furnace and the role of each in controlling the glass temperature.\ud \ud The models derived predict many of the qualitative features observed in the real industrial process, such as the glass temperature profile within the furnace and the sharp transition in fibre thickness. The models thus offer a desirable route to quick scenario testing, providing valuable practical information into the dependencies of the solution on the parameters and the dominant heat-transport mechanism

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of particle–wall impacts in a T-junction

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    Understanding the behaviour of particles entrained in a fluid flow upon changes in flow direction is crucial in problems where particle inertia is important, such as the erosion process in pipe bends.We present results on the impact of particles in a T-shaped channel in the laminar-turbulent transitional regime. The impacting event for a given system is described in terms of the Reynolds number and the particle Stokes number. Experimental results for the impact are compared with the trajectories predicted by theoretical particle tracing models for a range of configurations to determine the role of the viscous boundary layer in retarding the particles and reducing the rate of collision with the substrate. In particular a 2D model based on a stagnation point flow is used together with 3D numerical simulations. We show how the simple 2D model provides a tractable way of understanding the general collision behaviour, while more advanced 3D simulation can be helpful in understanding the details of the flow

    Information theoretic treatment of tripartite systems and quantum channels

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    A Holevo measure is used to discuss how much information about a given POVM on system aa is present in another system bb, and how this influences the presence or absence of information about a different POVM on aa in a third system cc. The main goal is to extend information theorems for mutually unbiased bases or general bases to arbitrary POVMs, and especially to generalize "all-or-nothing" theorems about information located in tripartite systems to the case of \emph{partial information}, in the form of quantitative inequalities. Some of the inequalities can be viewed as entropic uncertainty relations that apply in the presence of quantum side information, as in recent work by Berta et al. [Nature Physics 6, 659 (2010)]. All of the results also apply to quantum channels: e.g., if \EC accurately transmits certain POVMs, the complementary channel \FC will necessarily be noisy for certain other POVMs. While the inequalities are valid for mixed states of tripartite systems, restricting to pure states leads to the basis-invariance of the difference between the information about aa contained in bb and cc.Comment: 21 pages. An earlier version of this paper attempted to prove our main uncertainty relation, Theorem 5, using the achievability of the Holevo quantity in a coding task, an approach that ultimately failed because it did not account for locking of classical correlations, e.g. see [DiVincenzo et al. PRL. 92, 067902 (2004)]. In the latest version, we use a very different approach to prove Theorem

    Interaction between U/UO2 bilayers and hydrogen studied by in-situ X-ray diffraction

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    This paper reports experiments investigating the reaction of H2_{2} with uranium metal-oxide bilayers. The bilayers consist of \leq 100 nm of epitaxial α\alpha-U (grown on a Nb buffer deposited on sapphire) with a UO2_{2} overlayer of thicknesses of between 20 and 80 nm. The oxides were made either by depositing via reactive magnetron sputtering, or allowing the uranium metal to oxidise in air at room temperature. The bilayers were exposed to hydrogen, with sample temperatures between 80 and 200 C, and monitored via in-situ x-ray diffraction and complimentary experiments conducted using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy - Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (STEM-EELS). Small partial pressures of H2_{2} caused rapid consumption of the U metal and lead to changes in the intensity and position of the diffraction peaks from both the UO2_{2} overlayers and the U metal. There is an orientational dependence in the rate of U consumption. From changes in the lattice parameter we deduce that hydrogen enters both the oxide and metal layers, contracting the oxide and expanding the metal. The air-grown oxide overlayers appear to hinder the H2_{2}-reaction up to a threshold dose, but then on heating from 80 to 140 C the consumption is more rapid than for the as-deposited overlayers. STEM-EELS establishes that the U-hydride layer lies at the oxide-metal interface, and that the initial formation is at defects or grain boundaries, and involves the formation of amorphous and/or nanocrystalline UH3_{3}. This explains why no diffraction peaks from UH3_{3} are observed. {\textcopyright British Crown Owned Copyright 2017/AWE}Comment: Submitted for peer revie