36 research outputs found

    Genetic and germplasm studies with several isoenzyme loci in soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr)

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    The genetics of several electrophoretically detected isoenzyme variants in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) were investigated. Four loci conditioning aconitase (aconitate hydratase) mobility variants, as detected on starch gels, were defined. The four loci and their codominant alleles are: Aco1 (a, b), Aco2 (a, b), Aco3 (a, b), and Aco4 (a, b, c). The Enp locus, which conditions endopeptidase mobility variants, was described, and has two codominant alleles, a and b, as detected on starch gels. The Sod2 locus, with codominant alleles a and b, conditions superoxide dismutase mobility variants detected on polyacrylamide gels. All six of these loci are ideal markers for use in soybean genetics and breeding research;The six new loci were used in linkage studies, along with several other isoenzyme and morphological loci, to expand the genetic map of soybean. Both the Sp1 locus, which conditions (beta)-amylase variants, and the Aco3 locus, were assigned to linkage group 1. Sp1 is linked to the T locus (pubescence color) with a recombination frequency of 30.8 (+OR-) 1.6%, and to Y12 (chlorophyll deficient) with a frequency of 19.4 (+OR-) 1.8%. Aco3 is linked to both Sp1 and T, but the frequency of recombination varied widely with the parentage of the cross;The alleles present at 13 loci conditioning isoenzyme variants were determined in 1339 accessions in the USDA cultivated soybean (G. max) and wild soybean (G. soja Sieb. et Zucc.) germplasm collections. Several loci showed definite geographical trends in their distribution. There were differences in allozyme frequency between G. max and G. soja, as well, particularly for the loci Ap, Idh1, and Sod2. Based on gene frequencies and occurrence of multiple-locus genotypes, G. max and G. soja seem to represent different gene pools. Cluster analysis of the isozyme database defined groups of similar accessions across geographic origins. This information will make it possible to select parental materials of diverse origin for genetic and breeding research

    Bi-allelic Loss-of-Function CACNA1B Mutations in Progressive Epilepsy-Dyskinesia.

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    The occurrence of non-epileptic hyperkinetic movements in the context of developmental epileptic encephalopathies is an increasingly recognized phenomenon. Identification of causative mutations provides an important insight into common pathogenic mechanisms that cause both seizures and abnormal motor control. We report bi-allelic loss-of-function CACNA1B variants in six children from three unrelated families whose affected members present with a complex and progressive neurological syndrome. All affected individuals presented with epileptic encephalopathy, severe neurodevelopmental delay (often with regression), and a hyperkinetic movement disorder. Additional neurological features included postnatal microcephaly and hypotonia. Five children died in childhood or adolescence (mean age of death: 9 years), mainly as a result of secondary respiratory complications. CACNA1B encodes the pore-forming subunit of the pre-synaptic neuronal voltage-gated calcium channel Cav2.2/N-type, crucial for SNARE-mediated neurotransmission, particularly in the early postnatal period. Bi-allelic loss-of-function variants in CACNA1B are predicted to cause disruption of Ca2+ influx, leading to impaired synaptic neurotransmission. The resultant effect on neuronal function is likely to be important in the development of involuntary movements and epilepsy. Overall, our findings provide further evidence for the key role of Cav2.2 in normal human neurodevelopment.MAK is funded by an NIHR Research Professorship and receives funding from the Wellcome Trust, Great Ormond Street Children's Hospital Charity, and Rosetrees Trust. E.M. received funding from the Rosetrees Trust (CD-A53) and Great Ormond Street Hospital Children's Charity. K.G. received funding from Temple Street Foundation. A.M. is funded by Great Ormond Street Hospital, the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), and Biomedical Research Centre. F.L.R. and D.G. are funded by Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre. K.C. and A.S.J. are funded by NIHR Bioresource for Rare Diseases. The DDD Study presents independent research commissioned by the Health Innovation Challenge Fund (grant number HICF-1009-003), a parallel funding partnership between the Wellcome Trust and the Department of Health, and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (grant number WT098051). We acknowledge support from the UK Department of Health via the NIHR comprehensive Biomedical Research Centre award to Guy's and St. Thomas' National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust in partnership with King's College London. This research was also supported by the NIHR Great Ormond Street Hospital Biomedical Research Centre. J.H.C. is in receipt of an NIHR Senior Investigator Award. The research team acknowledges the support of the NIHR through the Comprehensive Clinical Research Network. The views expressed are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR, Department of Health, or Wellcome Trust. E.R.M. acknowledges support from NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, an NIHR Senior Investigator Award, and the University of Cambridge has received salary support in respect of E.R.M. from the NHS in the East of England through the Clinical Academic Reserve. I.E.S. is supported by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (Program Grant and Practitioner Fellowship)

    An opportunistic survey reveals an unexpected coronavirus diversity hotspot in North America

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    In summer 2020, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was detected on mink farms in Utah. An interagency One Health response was initiated to assess the extent of the outbreak and included sampling animals from on or near affected mink farms and testing them for SARS-CoV-2 and non-SARS coronaviruses. Among the 365 animals sampled, including domestic cats, mink, rodents, raccoons, and skunks, 261 (72%) of the animals harbored at least one coronavirus. Among the samples that could be further characterized, 127 alphacoronaviruses and 88 betacoronaviruses (including 74 detections of SARS-CoV-2 in mink) were identified. Moreover, at least 10% (n = 27) of the coronavirus-positive animals were found to be co-infected with more than one coronavirus. Our findings indicate an unexpectedly high prevalence of coronavirus among the domestic and wild free-roaming animals tested on mink farms. These results raise the possibility that mink farms could be potential hot spots for future trans-species viral spillover and the emergence of new pandemic coronaviruses

    MicroRNA expression profiling of PPD-B stimulated PBMC from M. bovis-challenged unvaccinated and BCG vaccinated cattle

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    There is an urgent need to identify additional diagnostic biomarkers for bovine TB to complement existing read-out systems such as interferon-gamma and for predictive markers of vaccine efficacy to accelerate vaccine development. To evaluate the potential of miRNAs as such biomarkers, we have analysed their expression in bovine PPD stimulated PBMC isolated from unvaccinated and BCG vaccinated cattle before and following Mycobacterium bovis (. M. bovis) infection. Using a bovine microRNA microarray, miR-155 was found to show a significant up-regulation in expression in early (week 2) and late (week 11) M. bovis post-infection samples from unvaccinated cattle, while in BCG vaccinated cattle up-regulation was observed only in late post-infection samples. No differential expression of miR-155 was observed in pre-infection samples from unvaccinated and vaccinated cattle. These observations suggest that miR-155 could be exploited as a marker distinguishing vaccinated from infected animals (DIVA). Analysis by TaqMan RT-PCR, verified the up-regulation of miR-155 in unvaccinated cattle post-infection. Significant correlation was found between the degree of pathology and miR-155 induction in the experimentally infected cattle, suggesting miR-155 is a biomarker of disease development and/or severity. Induction of miR155 expression in cattle sourced from farms with confirmed bTB that tested positive in the tuberculin skin or interferon-gamma blood test was found to be significantly higher in cattle presenting with more advanced pathology (defined by the presence of visible TB lesions) compared to infected cattle without visible pathology and thus likely to be of lower infectivity than those with more advanced disease. In conclusion, our data indicate that miR-155 has potential both as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker that could be used to identify animals with advanced pathology and as a DIVA test read-out. Its role in the immune biology of bovine TB will also be discussed.</p

    Thigh-length compression stockings and DVT after stroke

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    Controversy exists as to whether neoadjuvant chemotherapy improves survival in patients with invasive bladder cancer, despite randomised controlled trials of more than 3000 patients. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of such treatment on survival in patients with this disease