5 research outputs found

    Computational Study of Amino Mediated Molecular Interaction Evidenced in N 1s NEXAFS: 1,4-Diaminobenzene on Au (111)

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    Primary amines can interact with neighbor molecules or with a metal substrate via weak bonds involving the electron lone pair of their amino functional group. Near edge X-ray absorption spectra (NEXAFS) on the N 1s edge show that the structure of the empty molecular orbitals localized on the nitrogen atom is very sensitive to these interactions. Here we investigate the origin of these changes by means of theoretical calculations. NEXAFS spectra are simulated for the 1,4-benzenediamine (BDA) molecule in its free, crystalline, and monolayer on Au(111) forms. We identify the electronic states which are affected by these amino-based interactions. In the case of the molecular layer grown on the gold substrate, we show how the results of the calculations can be used to identify intermolecular interactions influencing adsorption geometries in molecular monolayers

    Trimethyltin-Mediated Covalent Gold–Carbon Bond Formation

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    We study the formation of covalent gold–​carbon bonds in benzyl­trimethyl­stannane (C<sub>10</sub>H<sub>16</sub>Sn) deposited on Au in ultra-high-vacuum conditions. Through X-ray photo­emission spectroscopy and X-ray absorption measurements, we find that the molecule fragments at the Sn–​benzyl bond when exposed to Au surfaces at temperatures as low as −110 °C. The resulting benzyl species is stabilized by the presence of Au(111) but only forms covalent Au–C bonds on more reactive Au surfaces like Au(110). We also present spectroscopic proof for the existence of an electronic “gateway” state localized on the Au–C bond that is responsible for its unique electronic properties. Finally, we use DFT-based nudged elastic band calculations to elucidate the crucial role played by the under-coordinated Au surface in the formation of Au–C bonds

    Noncontact Layer Stabilization of Azafullerene Radicals: Route toward High-Spin-Density Surfaces

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    We deposit azafullerene C59N• radicals in a vacuum on the Au(111) surface for layer thicknesses between 0.35 and 2.1 monolayers (ML). The layers are characterized using X-ray photoemission (XPS) and X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and by density functional calculations (DFT). The singly unoccupied C59N orbital (SUMO) has been identified in the N 1s NEXAFS/XPS spectra of C59N layers as a spectroscopic fingerprint of the molecular radical state. At low molecular coverages (up to 1 ML), films of monomeric C59N are stabilized with the nonbonded carbon orbital neighboring the nitrogen oriented toward the Au substrate, whereas in-plane intermolecular coupling into diamagnetic (C59N)2 dimers takes over toward the completion of the second layer. By following the C59N• SUMO peak intensity with increasing molecular coverage, we identify an intermediate high-spin-density phase between 1 and 2 ML, where uncoupled C59N• monomers in the second layer with pronounced radical character are formed. We argue that the C59N• radical stabilization of this supramonolayer phase of monomers is achieved by suppressed coupling to the substrate. This results from molecular isolation on top of the passivating azafullerene contact layer, which can be explored for molecular radical state stabilization and positioning on solid substrates

    Chemistry of the Methylamine Termination at a Gold Surface: From Autorecognition to Condensation

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    13The self-assembly of the naphthylmethylamine molecules (NMA) on the Au(111) surface is investigated by a combined experimental and theoretical approach. Three well-defined phases are observed upon different thermal treatments at the monolayer stage. The role played by the methylamine termination is evidenced in both the molecule–molecule and molecule–substrate interactions. The autorecognition process of the amino groups is identified as the driving factor for the formation of a complex hydrogen bonding scheme in small molecular clusters, possibly acting also as a precursor of a denitrogenation condensation process induced by thermal annealing.reservedmixedDri, Carlo; Fronzoni, Giovanna; Balducci, Gabriele; Furlan, Sara; Stener, Mauro; Feng, Zhijing; Comelli, Giovanni; Castellarin-Cudia, Carla; Cvetko, Dean; Kladnik, Gregor; Verdini, Alberto; Floreano, Luca; Cossaro, AlbanoDri, Carlo; Fronzoni, Giovanna; Balducci, Gabriele; Furlan, Sara; Stener, Mauro; Feng, Zhijing; Comelli, Giovanni; Castellarin Cudia, Carla; Cvetko, Dean; Kladnik, Gregor; Verdini, Alberto; Floreano, Luca; Cossaro, Alban

    Intermolecular Hydrogen Bonding and Molecular Orbital Distortion in 4‑Hydroxycyanobenzene Investigated by X‑ray Spectroscopy

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    Electronic structure of 4-hydroxycyanobenzene in the gas phase, thick films, and single crystals has been investigated by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS). We have used resonant photoemission spectroscopy (RESPES) to identify the symmetry and atomic localization of the occupied and unoccupied molecular orbitals for the free molecule. Upon condensation into a thick film, we find XPS energy shifts in opposite directions for the oxygen and nitrogen core levels, consistent with the formation of an intermolecular hydrogen bond. This interaction is also accompanied by a significant spatial distortion of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital that is displaced from the nitrogen atom, as indicated by the RESPES measurements. Thick films and single crystals display the same dichroism in polarization dependent NEXAFS, indicating that the intermolecular hydrogen bonding also steers the molecular assembly into a preferred molecular orientation