1,698 research outputs found

    Ladder proof of nonlocality for two spin-half particles revisited

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    In this paper we extend the ladder proof of nonlocality without inequalities for two spin-half particles given by Boschi et al [PRL 79, 2755 (1997)] to the case in which the measurement settings of the apparatus measuring one of the particles are different from the measurement settings of the apparatus measuring the other particle. It is shown that, in any case, the proportion of particle pairs for which the contradiction with local realism goes through is maximized when the measurement settings are the same for each apparatus. Also we write down a Bell inequality for the experiment in question which is violated by quantum mechanics by an amount which is twice as much as the amount by which quantum mechanics violates the Bell inequality considered in the above paper by Boschi et al.Comment: LaTeX, 7 pages, 1 figure, journal versio

    A feasible quantum optical experiment capable of refuting noncontextuality for single photons

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    Elaborating on a previous work by Simon et al. [PRL 85, 1783 (2000)] we propose a realizable quantum optical single-photon experiment using standard present day technology, capable of discriminating maximally between the predictions of quantum mechanics (QM) and noncontextual hidden variable theories (NCHV). Quantum mechanics predicts a gross violation (up to a factor of 2) of the noncontextual Bell-like inequality associated with the proposed experiment. An actual maximal violation of this inequality would demonstrate (modulo fair sampling) an all-or-nothing type contradiction between QM and NCHV.Comment: LaTeX file, 8 pages, 1 figur

    Preparation of n-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger entangled states in cavity QED: An approach with tolerance to nonidentical qubit-cavity coupling constants

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    We propose a way for generating nn-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled states with a three-level qubit system and (n-1) four-level qubit systems in a cavity. This proposal does not require identical qubit-cavity coupling constants, and thus is tolerant to qubit-system parameter nonuniformity and nonexact placement of qubits in a cavity. The proposal does not require adjustment of the qubit-system level spacings during the entire operation. Moreover, it is shown that entanglement can be deterministically generated using this method and the operation time is independent of the number of qubits. The present proposal is quite general, which can be applied to physical systems such as various types of superconducting devices coupled to a resonator or atoms trapped in a cavity.Comment: 3 figures, accepted by Phys. Rev.

    Bell's theorem without inequalities and without alignments

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    A proof of Bell's theorem without inequalities is presented which exhibits three remarkable properties: (a) reduced local states are immune to collective decoherence; (b) distant local setups do not need to be aligned, since the required perfect correlations are achieved for any local rotation of the local setups; (c) local measurements require only individual measurements on the qubits. Indeed, it is shown that this proof is essentially the only one which fulfils (a), (b), and (c).Comment: REVTeX4, 4 page

    On the logical structure of Bell theorems without inequalities

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    Bell theorems show how to experimentally falsify local realism. Conclusive falsification is highly desirable as it would provide support for the most profoundly counterintuitive feature of quantum theory - nonlocality. Despite the preponderance of evidence for quantum mechanics, practical limits on detector efficiency and the difficulty of coordinating space-like separated measurements have provided loopholes for a classical worldview; these loopholes have never been simultaneously closed. A number of new experiments have recently been proposed to close both loopholes at once. We show some of these novel designs fail in the most basic way, by not ruling out local hidden variable models, and we provide an explicit classical model to demonstrate this. They share a common flaw, which reveals a basic misunderstanding of how nonlocality proofs work. Given the time and resources now being devoted to such experiments, theoretical clarity is essential. Our explanation is presented in terms of simple logic and should serve to correct misconceptions and avoid future mistakes. We also show a nonlocality proof involving four participants which has interesting theoretical properties.Comment: 8 pages, text clarified, explicit LHV model provided for flawed nonlocality tes

    Comment on "Bell's Theorem without Inequalities and without Probabilities for Two Observers"

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    In this Comment we show that Cabello's argument [Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1911 (2001)] which proves the nonlocal feature of any classical model of quantum mechanics based on Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) criterion of elements of reality, must involve at least four distant observers rather than the two employed by the author. Moreover we raise a remark on the necessity of performing a real experiment confirming Cabello's argument.Comment: 1 page, REVTex4 fil

    Useful entanglement can be extracted from all nonseparable states

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    We consider entanglement distillation from a single-copy of a multipartite state, and instead of rates we analyze the "quality" of the distilled entanglement. This "quality" is quantified by the fidelity with the GHZ-state. We show that each not fully-separable state σ\sigma can increase the "quality" of the entanglement distilled from other states, no matter how weakly entangled is σ\sigma. We also generalize this to the case where the goal is distilling states different than the GHZ. These results provide new insights on the geometry of the set of separable states and its dual (the set of entanglement witnesses).Comment: 7 page

    Creating maximally entangled atomic states in a Bose-Einstein condensate

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    We propose a protocol to create maximally entangled pairs, triplets, quartiles, and other clusters of Bose condensed atoms starting from a condensate in the Mott insulator state. The essential element is to drive single atom Raman transitions using laser pulses. Our scheme is simple, efficient, and can be readily applied to the recent experimental system as reported by Greiner {\it et al.} [ Nature {\bf 413}, 44 (2002)].Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures. revised version as to be publishe

    Teleportation with a Mixed State of Four Qubits and the Generalized Singlet Fraction

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    Recently, an explicit protocol E0{\cal E}_0 for faithfully teleporting arbitrary two-qubit states using genuine four-qubit entangled states was presented by us [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\bf 96}, 060502 (2006)]. Here, we show that E0{\cal E}_0 with an arbitrary four-qubit mixed state resource Ξ\Xi is equivalent to a generalized depolarizing bichannel with probabilities given by the maximally entangled components of the resource. These are defined in terms of our four-qubit entangled states. We define the generalized singlet fraction G[Ξ]{\cal G}[\Xi], and illustrate its physical significance with several examples. We argue that in order to teleport arbitrary two-qubit states with average fidelity better than is classically possible, we have to demand that G[Ξ]>1/2{\cal G}[\Xi] > 1/2. In addition, we conjecture that when G[Ξ]<1/4{\cal G}[\Xi] < 1/4 then no entanglement can be teleported. It is shown that to determine the usefulness of Ξ\Xi for E0{\cal E}_0, it is necessary to analyze G[Ξ]{\cal G}[\Xi].Comment: 11 page

    Nested entangled states for distributed quantum channels

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    We find a coupling-strength configuration for a linear chain of N spins which gives rise to simultaneous multiple Bell states. We suggest a way such an interesting entanglement pattern can be used in order to distribute maximally entangled channels to remote locations and generate multipartite entanglement with a minimum-control approach. Our proposal thus provides a way to achieve the core resources in distributed information processing. The schemes we describe can be efficiently tested in chains of coupled cavities interacting with three-level atoms.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures, RevTeX