1,558 research outputs found

    Solid state concentration quenching of organic fluorophores in PMMA

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    In this study the concentration quenching phenomenon is explored for seven organic singlet emitters (Rhodamine 6G, Pyridine 2, Lumogen F Red 305, Perylene, Coumarin 102, DCM and DCJTB) in an inert host of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Combining fluorescence lifetime and quantum yield measurements on samples of different molecular separation allows a deep decay rate analysis to be performed yielding, for each fluorophore, a monomial power law that indicates the strength and type of interaction. The fluorophores studied exhibit interactions in between that of FRET-like dipole–dipole (R−6) and surface–surface (R−2) with many lying close to that expected for surface–dipole (R−3) interactions. With no observed dependence on molecular structure it is concluded that the concentration quenching rate in singlet emitters follows a power law as kCQ = aR−3.1±0.7 with aggregation expected to increase the magnitude of the observed power

    Communication practices of the Karen in Sheffield: Seeking to navigate their three zones of displacement

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    This study investigates communication practices of a newly arrived Karen refugee community in the UK who, as well as establishing themselves in a strange country, seek to keep in touch, campaign politically and maintain identity collectively through communication and contact with their global diaspora. We look at the technologies, motivations and inhibiting factors applying to the communication by adult members of this community and construct the idea of three zones of displacement which help to model the particular contexts, challenges and methods of their communication. We find that overall, they are using a wide range of internet-based technologies, with the aim to 'keep-in-touch' (personal contacts) and to 'spread the word' (political communication). This also includes archaic, traditional and hybrid methods to achieve extended communication with contacts in other 'zones'. We also identify the importance of the notion of ‘village’ as metaphor and entity in their conceptualisation of diasporic and local community cohesion. We identify the key inhibitors to their communication as cost, education, literacy and age. Finally, we speculate on the uncertain outcomes of their approach to digital media in achieving their political aims

    JAK2V617F promotes replication fork stalling with disease-restricted impairment of the intra-S checkpoint response

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    Cancers result from the accumulation of genetic lesions, but the cellular consequences of driver mutations remain unclear, especially during the earliest stages of malignancy. The V617F mutation in the JAK2 non-receptor tyrosine kinase (JAK2V617F) is present as an early somatic event in most patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), and the study of these chronic myeloid malignancies provides an experimentally tractable approach to understanding early tumorigenesis. Introduction of exogenous JAK2V617F impairs replication fork progression and is associated with activation of the intra-S checkpoint, with both effects mediated by phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling. Analysis of clonally derived JAK2V617F-positive erythroblasts from MPN patients also demonstrated impaired replication fork progression accompanied by increased levels of replication protein A (RPA)-containing foci. However, the associated intra-S checkpoint response was impaired in erythroblasts from polycythemia vera (PV) patients, but not in those from essential thrombocythemia (ET) patients. Moreover, inhibition of p53 in PV erythroblasts resulted in more gamma-H2Ax (γ-H2Ax)–marked double-stranded breaks compared with in like-treated ET erythroblasts, suggesting the defective intra-S checkpoint function seen in PV increases DNA damage in the context of attenuated p53 signaling. These results demonstrate oncogene-induced impairment of replication fork progression in primary cells from MPN patients, reveal unexpected disease-restricted differences in activation of the intra-S checkpoint, and have potential implications for the clonal evolution of malignancies

    Primordial black hole production due to preheating

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    During the preheating process at the end of inflation the amplification of field fluctuations can lead to the amplification of curvature perturbations. If the curvature perturbations on small scales are sufficiently large, primordial black holes (PBHs) will be overproduced. In this paper we study PBH production in the two-field preheating model with quadratic inflaton potential. We show that for many values of the inflaton mass m, and coupling g, small scale perturbations will be amplified sufficiently, before backreaction can shut off preheating, so that PBHs will be overproduced during the subsequent radiation dominated era.Comment: 5 pages, 3 eps figures. Minor changes to match version to appear in PRD as a rapid communicatio

    Cultural competency of health-care providers in a Swiss University Hospital: self-assessed cross-cultural skillfulness in a cross-sectional study.

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    BACKGROUND: As the diversity of the European population evolves, measuring providers' skillfulness in cross-cultural care and understanding what contextual factors may influence this is increasingly necessary. Given limited information about differences in cultural competency by provider role, we compared cross-cultural skillfulness between physicians and nurses working at a Swiss university hospital. METHODS: A survey on cross-cultural care was mailed in November 2010 to front-line providers in Lausanne, Switzerland. This questionnaire included some questions from the previously validated Cross-Cultural Care Survey. We compared physicians' and nurses' mean composite scores and proportion of "3-good/4-very good" responses, for nine perceived skillfulness items (4-point Likert-scale) using the validated tool. We used linear regression to examine how provider role (physician vs. nurse) was associated with composite skillfulness scores, adjusting for demographics (gender, non-French dominant language), workplace (time at institution, work-unit "sensitized" to cultural-care), reported cultural-competence training, and cross-cultural care problem-awareness. RESULTS: Of 885 questionnaires, 368 (41.2%) returned the survey: 124 (33.6%) physicians and 244 (66.4%) nurses, reflecting institutional distribution of providers. Physicians had better mean composite scores for perceived skillfulness than nurses (2.7 vs. 2.5, p < 0.005), and significantly higher proportion of "good/very good" responses for 4/9 items. After adjusting for explanatory variables, physicians remained more likely to have higher skillfulness (β = 0.13, p = 0.05). Among all, higher skillfulness was associated with perception/awareness of problems in the following areas: inadequate cross-cultural training (β = 0.14, p = 0.01) and lack of practical experience caring for diverse populations (β = 0.11, p = 0.04). In stratified analyses among physicians alone, having French as a dominant language (β = -0.34, p < 0.005) was negatively correlated with skillfulness. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, there is much room for cultural competency improvement among providers. These results support the need for cross-cultural skills training with an inter-professional focus on nurses, education that attunes provider awareness to the local issues in cross-cultural care, and increased diversity efforts in the work force, particularly among physicians

    Conditions for Successful Extended Inflation

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    We investigate, in a model-independent way, the conditions required to obtain a satisfactory model of extended inflation in which inflation is brought to an end by a first-order phase transition. The constraints are that the correct present strength of the gravitational coupling is obtained, that the present theory of gravity is satisfactorily close to general relativity, that the perturbation spectra from inflation are compatible with large scale structure observations and that the bubble spectrum produced at the phase transition doesn't conflict with the observed level of microwave background anisotropies. We demonstrate that these constraints can be summarized in terms of the behaviour in the conformally related Einstein frame, and can be compactly illustrated graphically. We confirm the failure of existing models including the original extended inflation model, and construct models, albeit rather contrived ones, which satisfy all existing constraints.Comment: 8 pages RevTeX file with one figure incorporated (uses RevTeX and epsf). Also available by e-mailing ARL, or by WWW at http://star-www.maps.susx.ac.uk/papers/infcos_papers.html; Revised to include extra references, results unchanged, to appear Phys Rev

    Bounds on the cosmological abundance of primordial black holes from diffuse sky brightness: single mass spectra

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    We constrain the mass abundance of unclustered primordial black holes (PBHs), formed with a simple mass distribution and subject to the Hawking evaporation and particle absorption from the environment. Since the radiative flux is proportional to the numerical density, an upper bound is obtained by comparing the calculated and observed diffuse background values, (similarly to the Olbers paradox in which point sources are considered) for finite bandwidths. For a significative range of formation redshifts the bounds are better than several values obtained by other arguments Ωpbh≤10−10\Omega_{pbh} \leq 10^{-10}; and they apply to PBHs which are evaporating today.Comment: 20 pages, 5 figures, to appear in PR

    Expression of Lamin A/C in early-stage breast cancer and its prognostic value

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    Purpose: Lamins A/C, a major component of the nuclear lamina, plays key roles in maintaining nuclear integrity, regulation of gene expression, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Reduced lamin A/C expression in cancer has been reported to be a sign of poor prognosis. However, its clinical significance in breast cancer remains to be defined. This study aimed to evaluate expression and prognostic significance of lamin A/C in early-stage breast cancer.Methods: Using immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarrays, expression of lamin A/C was evaluated in a large well-characterised series of early-stage operable breast cancer (n=938) obtained from Nottingham Primary Breast Carcinoma Series. Association of lamin A/C expression with clinicopathological parameters and outcome was evaluated.Results: Positive expression rate of lamin A/C in breast cancer was 42.2% (n=398). Reduced/loss of expression of lamin A/C was significantly associated with high histological grade (p [less than] 0.001), larger tumour size (p=0.004), poor Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI) score (p [less than] 0.001), lymphovascular invasion (p=0.014) and development of distant metastasis (p=0.027). Survival analysis showed that reduced/loss of expression of lamin A/C was significantly associated with shorter breast cancer specific survival (p=0.008).Conclusion: This study suggests lamin A/C plays a role in breast cancer and loss of its expression is associated with variables of poor prognosis and shorter outcome

    Dense circumnuclear molecular gas in starburst galaxies

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    We present results from a study of the dense circumnuclear molecular gas of starburst galaxies. The study aims to investigate the interplay between starbursts, active galactic nuclei and molecular gas.We characterize the dense gas traced by HCN, HCO and HNC and examine its kinematics in the circumnuclear regions of nine starburst galaxies observed with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. We detect HCN (1-0) and HCO (1-0) in seven of the nine galaxies and HNC (1-0) in four. Approximately 7 arcsec resolution maps of the circumnuclear molecular gas are presented. The velocity-integrated intensity ratios, HCO (1-0)/HCN (1-0) and HNC (1-0)/HCN (1-0), are calculated. Using these integrated intensity ratios and spatial intensity ratio maps, we identify photon-dominated regions (PDRs) in NGC 1097, NGC 1365 and NGC 1808. We find no galaxy which shows the PDR signature in only one part of the observed nuclear region.We also observe unusually strong HNC emission in NGC 5236, but it is not strong enough to be consistent with X-ray-dominated region chemistry. Rotation curves are derived for five of the galaxies and dynamical mass estimates of the inner regions of three of the galaxies are made. © 2016 The Authors.This project was supported by the Brother Vincent Cotter Award for Physics (UNSW). LVM has been supported by Grant AYA2011-30491-C02-01 co-financed by MICINN and FEDER funds, and the Junta de Andalucia (Spain) grants P08-FQM-4205 and TIC-114. WAB acknowledges the support as a Visiting Professor of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (KJZD-EW-T01). The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (/FP7/2007-2013/) under grant agreement No 229517.Peer Reviewe

    STAT1 activation in association with JAK2 exon 12 mutations

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    La inclusión de la perspectiva de género en la actividad jurisdiccional es una demanda sostenida de los colectivos feministas y de mujeres, dado que las sentencias tienen un poder performativo y envían un mensaje a la sociedad: “[…] tienen un poder individual y colectivo que impactan en la vida de las personas y conforman la identidad del poder judicial como un actor imprescindible en la construcción de un Estado democrático de derecho” (Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nación, 2013:7). La incorporación de la perspectiva de género viene a garantizar la igualdad de posiciones (Kessler, 2014) entre mujeres y varones como una meta, trascendiendo la mera igualdad de oportunidades que hasta el presente se ha demostrado insuficiente para que las mujeres consigamos una ciudadanía plena. Al momento de incorporar la perspectiva de género en las sentencias, quienes juzgan deben tener presente en primer lugar, el impacto diferenciado de las normas en base al sexo de las personas. En segundo lugar, la interpretación y aplicación de las leyes en relación con (y en base a) estereotipos de género. Si, por ejemplo, quienes imparten justicia no tienen presentes los estereotipos de género vigentes detrás de las violaciones a los derechos humanos de las mujeres, si no los detectan ni cuestionan, entonces los reproducen. Tal como sostiene Scott (1996) el género es una categoría imprescindible para el análisis social. En tercer lugar, al momento del juzgamiento, se deben tener en cuenta las exclusiones legitimadas por la ley por pensar el mundo en términos binarios y androcéntricos; en cuarto lugar, la distribución no equitativa de recursos y poder que opera entre varones y mujeres en el marco de una organización social patriarcal, y, por último, el trato diferenciado por género legitimado por las propias leyes.Eje 3: Tramas violentas y espacios de exclusión.Instituto de Cultura Jurídic
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