2,397 research outputs found

    The Knowledge of Dementia Among Nursing Staff Working in Special Care Units

    Get PDF
    Dementia is a growing concern among the elder population. Special Care Units in long-term settings are becoming common placements for elders with dementia. The nursing staff within Special Care Units ideally have additional training in dementia. The purpose of this thesis is to examine the knowledge of dementia among nursing staff working in Special Care Units

    Perdeuterated cyanobiphenyl liquid crystals for infrared applications

    Get PDF
    Perdeuterated 4'-pentyl-4-cyanobiphenyl (D5CB) was synthesized and its physical properties evaluated and compared to those of 5CB. D5CB retains physical properties similar to those of 5CB, such as phase transition temperatures, dielectric constants, and refractive indices. An outstanding feature of D5CB is that it exhibits a much cleaner and reduced infrared absorption. Perdeuteration, therefore, extends the usable range of liquid crystals to the mid infrared by significantly reducing the absorption in the near infrared, which is essential for telecom applications

    Generalised Geometry for M-Theory

    Get PDF
    Generalised geometry studies structures on a d-dimensional manifold with a metric and 2-form gauge field on which there is a natural action of the group SO(d,d). This is generalised to d-dimensional manifolds with a metric and 3-form gauge field on which there is a natural action of the group EdE_{d}. This provides a framework for the discussion of M-theory solutions with flux. A different generalisation is to d-dimensional manifolds with a metric, 2-form gauge field and a set of p-forms for pp either odd or even on which there is a natural action of the group Ed+1E_{d+1}. This is useful for type IIA or IIB string solutions with flux. Further generalisations give extended tangent bundles and extended spin bundles relevant for non-geometric backgrounds. Special structures that arise for supersymmetric backgrounds are discussed.Comment: 31 page

    Copper(II) and Nickel(II) Octabromo-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)Porphyrin Complexes

    Get PDF
    The copper and nickel complexes of 2,3,7,8,12,13,17, 18-octabromo-5,10,15,20-tetrakis(pentaftuorophenyl) porphyrin ({4,5,9,10,14,15,19,20-octabromo-2,7,12,17-tetrakis(pentaftuorophenyl)-21,22,23,24-tetraazapentacyclo[l6.2.1.1^(3,6).l^(8,11).l^(13,16)]tetracosa-l,3-(22),4,6,8(23),9,11,13(24),14,16,18(21),19-dodecaene }copper(II) 0.5-dichloromethane solvate and {4,5,9,10,14,15,19,20-octabromo-2,7,12,17-tetrakis(pentaftuorophenyl)-21,22,23,24-tetraazapentacyclo( 16.2.1.1^(3,6).l^(8,11).l^(13,16)]tetracosa-l,3(22),4,6,8(23),9,ll,13(24),14,16,18(21),19-dodecaene} nickel(II)0.5-dichloromethane solvate) form isostructural crystals. There is significant distortion from planarity of the porphyrin ring caused by the octabromo substituents interacting with the meso-pentafluorophenyl groups and with each other, with departures of the Br atoms from the plane defined by the four N atoms of up to 2.36 A. This tetrahedral distortion of the molecule does not result in any significant changes in bond distances from those in non-halogenated tetraphenylporphyrin complexes

    Food Packaging and Bisphenol A and Bis(2-Ethyhexyl) Phthalate Exposure: Findings from a Dietary Intervention

    Get PDF
    Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are high-production-volume chemicals used in plastics and resins for food packaging. They have been associated with endocrine disruption in animals and in some human studies. Human exposure sources have been estimated, but the relative contribution of dietary exposure to total intake has not been studied empirically

    The role of fire in UK peatland and moorland management: the need for informed, unbiased debate

    Get PDF
    Fire has been used for centuries to generate and manage some of the UK's cultural landscapes. Despite its complex role in the ecology of UK peatlands and moorlands, there has been a trend of simplifying the narrative around burning to present it as an only ecologically damaging practice. That fire modifies peatland characteristics at a range of scales is clearly understood. Whether these changes are perceived as positive or negative depends upon how trade-offs are made between ecosystem services and the spatial and temporal scales of concern. Here we explore the complex interactions and trade-offs in peatland fire management, evaluating the benefits and costs of managed fire as they are currently understood. We highlight the need for (i) distinguishing between the impacts of fires occurring with differing severity and frequency, and (ii) improved characterization of ecosystem health that incorporates the response and recovery of peatlands to fire. We also explore how recent research has been contextualized within both scientific publications and the wider media and how this can influence non-specialist perceptions. We emphasize the need for an informed, unbiased debate on fire as an ecological management tool that is separated from other aspects of moorland management and from political and economic opinions

    Quantifying and Mitigating Motor Phenotypes Induced by Antisense Oligonucleotides in the Central Nervous System [preprint]

    Get PDF
    Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are emerging as a promising class of therapeutics for neurological diseases. When injected directly into the cerebrospinal fluid, ASOs distribute broadly across brain regions and exert long-lasting therapeutic effects. However, many phosphorothioate (PS)-modified gapmer ASOs show transient motor phenotypes when injected into the cerebrospinal fluid, ranging from reduced motor activity to ataxia or acute seizure-like phenotypes. The effect of sugar and phosphate modifications on these phenotypes has not previously been systematically studied. Using a behavioral scoring assay customized to reflect the timing and nature of these effects, we show that both sugar and phosphate modifications influence acute motor phenotypes. Among sugar analogues, PS-DNA induces the strongest motor phenotype while 2’-substituted RNA modifications improve the tolerability of PS-ASOs. This helps explain why gapmer ASOs have been more challenging to develop clinically relative to steric blocker ASOs, which have a reduced tendency to induce these effects. Reducing the PS content of gapmer ASOs, which contain a stretch of PS-DNA, improves their toxicity profile, but in some cases also reduces their efficacy or duration of effect. Reducing PS content improved the acute tolerability of ASOs in both mice and sheep. We show that this acute toxicity is not mediated by the major nucleic acid sensing innate immune pathways. Formulating ASOs with calcium ions before injecting into the CNS further improved their tolerability, but through a mechanism at least partially distinct from the reduction of PS content. Overall, our work identifies and quantifies an understudied aspect of oligonucleotide toxicology in the CNS, explores its mechanism, and presents platform-level medicinal chemistry approaches that improve tolerability of this class of compounds

    A Super-Oxidized Radical Cationic Icosahedral Boron Cluster

    Get PDF
    While the icosahedral closo-[B₁₂H₁₂]²⁻ cluster does not display reversible electrochemical behavior, perfunctionalization of this species via substitution of all 12 B–H vertices with alkoxy or benzyloxy (OR) substituents engenders reversible redox chemistry, providing access to clusters in the dianionic, monoanionic, and neutral forms. Here, we evaluated the electrochemical behavior of the electron-rich B₁₂(O-3-methylbutyl)₁₂ (1) cluster and discovered that a new reversible redox event that gives rise to a fourth electronic state is accessible through one-electron oxidation of the neutral species. Chemical oxidation of 1 with [N(2,4-Br₂C₆H₃)₃]·⁺ afforded the isolable [1]·⁺ cluster, which is the first example of an open-shell cationic B₁₂ cluster in which the unpaired electron is proposed to be delocalized throughout the boron cluster core. The oxidation of 1 is also chemically reversible, where treatment of [1]·⁺ with ferrocene resulted in its reduction back to 1. The identity of [1]·⁺ is supported by EPR, UV–vis, multinuclear NMR (¹H, ¹¹B), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic characterization
    corecore