1,995 research outputs found

    Sugardale Marketing Research Project

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    This is a marketing research project for Sugardale meat company. Our group will be conducting primary and secondary research in order to answer questions and achieve goals that will help the Sugardale meat company market to millennials

    Effects of calorie restriction and IGF-1 receptor blockade on the progression of 22Rv1 prostate cancer xenografts.

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    Calorie restriction (CR) inhibits prostate cancer progression, partially through modulation of the IGF axis. IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) blockade reduces prostate cancer xenograft growth. We hypothesized that combining calorie restriction with IGF-1R blockade would have an additive effect on prostate cancer growth. Severe combined immunodeficient mice were subcutaneously injected with 22Rv1 cells and randomized to: (1) Ad libitum feeding/intraperitoneal saline (Ad-lib); (2) Ad-lib/20 mg/kg twice weekly, intraperitoneal ganitumab [anti-IGF-1R antibody (Ad-lib/Ab)]; (3) 40% calorie restriction/intraperitoneal saline (CR); (4) CR/ intraperitoneal ganitumab, (CR/Ab). CR and ganitumab treatment were initiated one week after tumor injection. Euthanasia occurred 19 days post treatment. Results showed that CR alone decreased final tumor weight, plasma insulin and IGF-1 levels, and increased apoptosis. Ganitumab therapy alone reduced tumor growth but had no effect on final tumor weight. The combination therapy (CR/Ab) further decreased final tumor weight and proliferation, increased apoptosis in comparison to the Ad-lib group, and lowered plasma insulin levels relative to the Ad-lib and Ad-lib/Ab groups. Tumor AKT activation directly correlated with plasma IGF-1 levels. In conclusion, whereas ganitumab therapy modestly affected 22Rv1 tumor growth, combining IGF-1R blockade with calorie restriction resulted in a significant decrease in final tumor weight and improved metabolic profile

    Fetal MRI in management of complicated meconium ileus: Prenatal and surgical imaging

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    Objective To review fetal MRI cases surgically proven to have meconium ileus (MI) and obstruction, describe the common fetal MRI findings that distinguish cases of complicated MI, and to compare these findings with surgical images and perinatal outcomes. Method We performed a retrospective review of all fetal MRI examinations and the corresponding medical record from our tertiary care children's hospital over an 18‐month period. Postnatal management and outcomes were reviewed for these patients, and those patients with surgical or postmortem diagnosis of complicated MI were included in the study. Results Our analysis revealed 7 cases. In this cohort, 3 imaging features of the fetal bowel were repeatedly seen: gradient appearance of intraluminal bowel contents, abnormally localized meconium signal, and collapsed appearance of the colon on MRI. Surgical diagnoses confirmed MI. All live‐born infants underwent surgical repair. Conclusion Fetal MRI should be included in the diagnostic algorithm of any pregnancy where fetal bowel obstruction is suspected to better risk stratify patients

    Fetal MRI in the Identification of a Fetal Ventral Wall Defect Spectrum

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    Objective  To ascertain if useful criteria for prenatal diagnosis of fetal ventral body wall defects (VBWDs) exists by reviewing published literature on diagnosis of VBWD as compared with our own diagnostic experience. Study Design  A comprehensive literature review of diagnostic criteria of fetal VBWD including pentalogy of Cantrell (POC), omphalocele, exstrophy, imperforate anus, spina bifida (OEIS), cloacal exstrophy, limb-body wall complex (LBWC), and body stalk anomaly was performed followed by a retrospective review of all fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations from our medical center over a 2-year period. Results  Classically, OEIS is omphalocele, bladder exstrophy, imperforate anus, and spina bifida. POC is defects of the supraumbilical abdomen, sternum, diaphragm, pericardium, and heart. LBWC is two of the following: exencephaly or enencephaly with facial clefts, thoracoschisis or abdominoschisis, and limb defects. Twenty-four cases of VBWD on MRI over a 24-month period were identified with seven cases involving defects of additional organ systems. Six of these seven cases demonstrated findings from two or more of the traditional diagnoses POC, OEIS, and LBWC making diagnosis and counseling difficult. Conclusion  There is a lack of consensus on useful diagnostic criteria within the published literature which is reflected in our own diagnostic experience and poses a challenge for accurate prenatal counseling

    A proactive approach: Examples for integrating disaster risk reduction and mental health and psychosocial support programming

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    Natural disasters and humanitarian emergencies exert devastating impacts globally. Among these effects are disruptions in mental health and psychosocial well-being. Traditionally, mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) interventions have been implemented in response and recovery phases. Yet, the field of disaster management has demonstrated a shift towards disaster risk reduction (DRR). The degree to which the MHPSS field has followed this trend has been limited by several factors, including a lack of consensus-based guidance for MHPSS and DRR integration. However, examples from the field exist and demonstrate the feasibility of taking proactive approaches to supporting mental health and well-being and building better before emergencies occur. The following article outlines two case examples, one project in Sierra Leone and another in India, integrating MHPSS and DRR approaches and principles. Lessons learned from these cases and specific challenges in each context are highlighted and discussed

    Bioactive Lipids and Circulating Progenitor Cells in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

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    Bone marrow-derived progenitor cells are mobilized into the peripheral blood after acute myocardial injury and in chronic ischemic heart disease. However, the mechanisms responsible for this mobilization are poorly understood. We examined the relationship between plasma levels of bioactive lipids and number of circulating progenitor cells (CPCs) in patients (N = 437) undergoing elective or emergent cardiac catheterization. Plasma levels of sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) and ceramide-1 phosphate (C1P) were quantified using mass spectrometry. CPCs were assessed using flow cytometry. S1P levels correlated with the numbers of CD34+, CD34+/CD133+, and CD34+/CXCR4+ CPCs even after adjustment for potential confounding factors. However, no significant correlation was observed between C1P levels and CPC count. Plasma levels of S1P correlated with the number of CPCs in patients with coronary artery disease, suggesting an important mechanistic role for S1P in stem cell mobilization. The therapeutic effects of adjunctive S1P therapy to mobilize endogenous stem cells need to be investigated

    Minimal Aggregate Size and Minimal Fusion Unit for the First Fusion Pore of Influenza Hemagglutinin-Mediated Membrane Fusion

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    AbstractThe data of Melikyan et al. (J. Gen. Physiol. 106:783, 1995) for the time required for the first measurable step of fusion, the formation of the first flickering conductivity pore between influenza hemagglutinin (HA) expressing cells and planar bilayers, has been analyzed using a new mass action kinetic model. The analysis incorporates a rigorous distinction between the minimum number of HA trimers aggregated at the nascent fusion site (which is denoted the minimal aggregate size) and the number of those trimers that must to undergo a slow essential conformational change before the first fusion pore could form (which is denoted the minimal fusion unit). At least eight (and likely more) HA trimers aggregated at the nascent fusion site. Remarkably, of these eight (or more) HAs, only two or three must undergo the essential conformational change slowly before the first fusion pore can form. Whether the conformational change of these first two or three HAs are sufficient for the first fusion pore to form or whether the remaining HAs within the aggregate must rapidly transform in a cooperative manner cannot be determined kinetically. Remarkably, the fitted halftime for the essential HA conformational change is roughly 104 s, which is two orders of magnitude slower than the observed halftime for fusion. This is because the HAs refold with distributed kinetics and because the conductance assay monitored the very first aggregate to succeed in forming a first fusion pore from an ensemble of hundreds or thousands (depending upon the cell line) of fusogenic HA aggregates within the area of apposition between the cell and the planar bilayer. Furthermore, the average rate constant for this essential conformational change was at least 107 times slower than expected for a simple coiled coil conformational change, suggesting that there is either a high free energy barrier to fusion and/or very many nonfusogenic conformations in the refolding landscape. Current models for HA-mediated fusion are examined in light of these new constraints on the early structure and evolution of the nascent fusion site. None completely comply with the data

    Engineering tyrosine-based electron flow pathways in proteins: The case of aplysia myoglobin

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    Tyrosine residues can act as redox cofactors that provide an electron transfer ("hole-hopping") route that enhances the rate of ferryl heme iron reduction by externally added reductants, for example, ascorbate. Aplysia fasciata myoglobin, having no naturally occurring tyrosines but 15 phenylalanines that can be selectively mutated to tyrosine residues, provides an ideal protein with which to study such through-protein electron transfer pathways and ways to manipulate them. Two surface exposed phenylalanines that are close to the heme have been mutated to tyrosines (F42Y, F98Y). In both of these, the rate of ferryl heme reduction increased by up to 3 orders of magnitude. This result cannot be explained in terms of distance or redox potential change between donor and acceptor but indicates that tyrosines, by virtue of their ability to form radicals, act as redox cofactors in a new pathway. The mechanism is discussed in terms of the Marcus theory and the specific protonation/deprotonation states of the oxoferryl iron and tyrosine. Tyrosine radicals have been observed and quantified by EPR spectroscopy in both mutants, consistent with the proposed mechanism. The location of each radical is unambiguous and allows us to validate theoretical methods that assign radical location on the basis of EPR hyperfine structure. Mutation to tyrosine decreases the lipid peroxidase activity of this myoglobin in the presence of low concentrations of reductant, and the possibility of decreasing the intrinsic toxicity of hemoglobin by introduction of these pathways is discussed. © 2012 American Chemical Society
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