4 research outputs found

    Biomarker Supervised G-CSF (Filgrastim) Response in ALS Patients

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    Objective: To evaluate safety, tolerability and feasibility of long-term treatment with Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), a well-known hematopoietic stem cell factor, guided by assessment of mobilized bone marrow derived stem cells and cytokines in the serum of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) treated on a named patient basis.Methods: 36 ALS patients were treated with subcutaneous injections of G-CSF on a named patient basis and in an outpatient setting. Drug was dosed by individual application schemes (mean 464 Mio IU/month, range 90-2160 Mio IU/month) over a median of 13.7 months (range from 2.7 to 73.8 months). Safety, tolerability, survival and change in ALSFRS-R were observed. Hematopoietic stem cells were monitored by flow cytometry analysis of circulating CD34+ and CD34+CD38‚ąí cells, and peripheral cytokines were assessed by electrochemoluminescence throughout the intervention period. Analysis of immunological and hematological markers was conducted.Results: Long term and individually adapted treatment with G-CSF was well tolerated and safe. G-CSF led to a significant mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells into the peripheral blood. Higher mobilization capacity was associated with prolonged survival. Initial levels of serum cytokines, such as MDC, TNF-beta, IL-7, IL-16, and Tie-2 were significantly associated with survival. Continued application of G-CSF led to persistent alterations in serum cytokines and ongoing measurements revealed the multifaceted effects of G-CSF.Conclusions: G-CSF treatment is feasible and safe for ALS patients. It may exert its beneficial effects through neuroprotective and -regenerative activities, mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells and regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines as well as angiogenic factors. These cytokines may serve as prognostic markers when measured at the time of diagnosis. Hematopoietic stem cell numbers and cytokine levels are altered by ongoing G-CSF application and may potentially serve as treatment biomarkers for early monitoring of G-CSF treatment efficacy in ALS in future clinical trials

    Modeling and Bioinformatics Identify Responders to G-CSF in Patients With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

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    Objective: Developing an integrative approach to early treatment response classification using survival modeling and bioinformatics with various biomarkers for early assessment of filgrastim (granulocyte colony stimulating factor) treatment effects in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. Filgrastim, a hematopoietic growth factor with excellent safety, routinely applied in oncology and stem cell mobilization, had shown preliminary efficacy in ALS. Methods: We conducted individualized long-term filgrastim treatment in 36 ALS patients. The PRO-ACT database, with outcome data from 23 international clinical ALS trials, served as historical control and mathematical reference for survival modeling. Imaging data as well as cytokine and cellular data from stem cell analysis were processed as biomarkers in a non-linear principal component analysis (NLPCA) to identify individual response. Results: Cox proportional hazard and matched-pair analyses revealed a significant survival benefit for filgrastim-treated patients over PRO-ACT comparators. We generated a model for survival estimation based on patients in the PRO-ACT database and then applied the model to filgrastim-treated patients. Model-identified filgrastim responders displayed less functional decline and impressively longer survival than non-responders. Multimodal biomarkers were then analyzed by PCA in the context of model-defined treatment response, allowing identification of subsequent treatment response as early as within 3 months of therapy. Strong treatment response with a median survival of 3.8 years after start of therapy was associated with younger age, increased hematopoietic stem cell mobilization, less aggressive inflammatory cytokine plasma profiles, and preserved pattern of fractional anisotropy as determined by magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI-MRI). Conclusion: Long-term filgrastim is safe, is well-tolerated, and has significant positive effects on disease progression and survival in a small cohort of ALS patients. Developing and applying a model-based biomarker response classification allows use of multimodal biomarker patterns in full potential. This can identify strong individual treatment responders (here: filgrastim) at a very early stage of therapy and may pave the way to an effective individualized treatment option