11 research outputs found

    Impact of competition and business cycles on the behaviour of monopolistic markups in the Polish economy

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    The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of competition, both internal and external, and of the business cycle on monopolistic markups in the Polish economy. The results show that there are significant markups in several sectors of the economy which complies with earlier estimations by the authors. According to the estimations carried out, competition has a significant impact on the level of markups. This result applies both to internal competition, measured by market concentration, and foreign competition, measured by import penetration ratios. In addition, there was a significant negative correlation between markups and the macroeconomic cycle which seems to confirm the conclusions from numerous theoretical macro and microeconomic models. The results also point to a positive but less clear correlation between the sectoral cycle and the level of markups. A different reaction of markups to the sectoral and macroeconomic cycles may result from a different nature of adjustments of businesses in reaction to exogenous shocks affecting either the sectoral or the macroeconomic environment of the enterprises.markups, microeconometrics, microeconomics, monopoly power

    The cost of fiscal tightening in Poland on the road to the Euro: does the labour market matter? (CGE model simulations)

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    The paper presents an assessment of macroeconomic and also some selected structural consequences of the proposed fiscal consolidation necessary for Poland to fulfil the Maastricht fiscal criteria. The fiscal adjustments are assessed with a CGE model simulated over the 2006–2008 horizon. Two sets of simulations are analysed, namely rigid vs. flexible wages. It is shown that the fiscal tightening programme analysed in this paper does not necessarily incur any costs in terms of aggregate GDP loss in years 2006–2008. On the contrary, it may generate additional growth effects, provided that downward wage adjustments reduce unit labour costs, thus fostering the growth. It is concluded that the condition for the achievement of a smooth and relatively low-cost fiscal adjustment is to supplement it with labour market reform.fiscal reform, Maastricht criteria, labour market, CGE model

    MarĹĽe monopolistyczne i przychody skali w gospodarce polskiej

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    This article estimates returns to scale and monopolistic markups on a large sample of Polish firms in the manufacturing and services sectors during 1996-2004. Methodology based on instrumental variables allows joint estimation of both, scale elasticities as well as markups, while the unobserved changes in firm-specific productivities are under control. Results show significant and positive markups in the aggregate manufacturing sector and in several narrowly defined industries. Returns to scale vary, but they are more pronounced in manufacturing, than in service sectors. Markups in service sector are lower than expected. Sensitivity analysis suggests sufficient overall stability of results

    Estimating the output gap in the Polish economy: the VECM approach

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    This article presents three estimates of the output gap, one using the production function method, and the other two by assessing the long-term product using cointegration relationships (based on the production function and on the hypothesis of permanent income). It also presents an analysis of time-relationships between the estimated output gaps and selected measures of inflation using the covariance of a VAR-type stochastic process. The methods employed yield different estimates of the output gap. The time paths of calculated gaps and the analysis of time relationships (conditional on the existence of relationship described by the Phillips curve and the possibility of using obtained gaps in it) allow the authors to conclude that there’s no inflationary pressure from the aggregate demand in the Polish economy, at least till the end of 2003

    Impact of competition and business cycles on the behaviour of monopolistic markups in the Polish economy

    Get PDF
    The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of competition, both internal and external, and of the business cycle on monopolistic markups in the Polish economy. The results show that there are significant markups in several sectors of the economy which complies with earlier estimations by the authors. According to the estimations carried out, competition has a significant impact on the level of markups. This result applies both to internal competition, measured by market concentration, and foreign competition, measured by import penetration ratios. In addition, there was a significant negative correlation between markups and the macroeconomic cycle which seems to confirm the conclusions from numerous theoretical macro and microeconomic models. The results also point to a positive but less clear correlation between the sectoral cycle and the level of markups. A different reaction of markups to the sectoral and macroeconomic cycles may result from a different nature of adjustments of businesses in reaction to exogenous shocks affecting either the sectoral or the macroeconomic environment of the enterprises

    The cost of fiscal tightening in Poland on the road to the Euro: does the labour market matter? (CGE model simulations)

    Get PDF
    The paper presents an assessment of macroeconomic and also some selected structural consequences of the proposed fiscal consolidation necessary for Poland to fulfil the Maastricht fiscal criteria. The fiscal adjustments are assessed with a CGE model simulated over the 2006–2008 horizon. Two sets of simulations are analysed, namely rigid vs. flexible wages. It is shown that the fiscal tightening programme analysed in this paper does not necessarily incur any costs in terms of aggregate GDP loss in years 2006–2008. On the contrary, it may generate additional growth effects, provided that downward wage adjustments reduce unit labour costs, thus fostering the growth. It is concluded that the condition for the achievement of a smooth and relatively low-cost fiscal adjustment is to supplement it with labour market reform

    MarĹĽe monopolistyczne i przychody skali w gospodarce polskiej

    Get PDF
    This article estimates returns to scale and monopolistic markups on a large sample of Polish firms in the manufacturing and services sectors during 1996-2004. Methodology based on instrumental variables allows joint estimation of both, scale elasticities as well as markups, while the unobserved changes in firm-specific productivities are under control. Results show significant and positive markups in the aggregate manufacturing sector and in several narrowly defined industries. Returns to scale vary, but they are more pronounced in manufacturing, than in service sectors. Markups in service sector are lower than expected. Sensitivity analysis suggests sufficient overall stability of results

    The cost of fiscal tightening in Poland on the road to the Euro: does the labour market matter? (CGE model simulations)

    Get PDF
    The paper presents an assessment of macroeconomic and also some selected structural consequences of the proposed fiscal consolidation necessary for Poland to fulfil the Maastricht fiscal criteria. The fiscal adjustments are assessed with a CGE model simulated over the 2006–2008 horizon. Two sets of simulations are analysed, namely rigid vs. flexible wages. It is shown that the fiscal tightening programme analysed in this paper does not necessarily incur any costs in terms of aggregate GDP loss in years 2006–2008. On the contrary, it may generate additional growth effects, provided that downward wage adjustments reduce unit labour costs, thus fostering the growth. It is concluded that the condition for the achievement of a smooth and relatively low-cost fiscal adjustment is to supplement it with labour market reform
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